Private 5G Networks: 2024 – 2030 – Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies & Forecasts

Release Date: May 2024

Number of Pages: 2,480

Number of Tables and Figures: 113

Synopsis

Private LTE networks are a well-established market and have been around for more than a decade, albeit as a niche segment of the wider cellular infrastructure segment – iNET's (Infrastructure Networks) 700 MHz LTE network in the Permian Basin, Tampnet's offshore 4G infrastructure in the North Sea, Rio Tinto's private LTE network for its Western Australia mining operations and other initial installations date back to the early 2010s. However, in most national markets, private cellular networks or NPNs (Non-Public Networks) based on the 3GPP-defined 5G standard are just beginning to move beyond PoC (Proof-of-Concept) trials and small-scale deployments to production-grade implementations of standalone 5G networks, which are laying the foundation for Industry 4.0 and advanced application scenarios. 

Compared to LTE technology, private 5G networks – also referred to as 5G MPNs (Mobile Private Networks), 5G campus networks, local 5G or e-Um 5G systems depending on geography – can address far more demanding performance requirements in terms of throughput, latency, reliability, availability and connection density. In particular, 5G's URLLC (Ultra-Reliable, Low-Latency Communications) and mMTC (Massive Machine-Type Communications) capabilities, along with a future-proof transition path to 6G networks in the 2030s, have positioned it as a viable alternative to physically wired connections for industrial-grade communications between machines, robots and control systems. Furthermore, despite its relatively higher cost of ownership, 5G's wider coverage radius per radio node, scalability, determinism, security features and mobility support have stirred strong interest in its potential as a replacement for interference-prone unlicensed wireless technologies in IIoT (Industrial IoT) environments, where the number of connected sensors and other endpoints is expected to increase significantly over the coming years.

It is worth noting that China is an outlier and the most mature national market thanks to state-funded directives aimed at accelerating the adoption of 5G connectivity in industrial settings such as factories, warehouses, mines, power plants, substations, oil and gas facilities and ports. To provide some context, the largest private 5G installations in China can comprise hundreds to even thousands of dedicated RAN (Radio Access Network) nodes supported by on-premise or edge cloud-based core network functions depending on specific latency, reliability and security requirements. For example, home appliance manufacturer Midea's Jingzhou industrial park hosts 2,500 indoor and outdoor 5G NR access points to connect workers, machines, robots and vehicles across an area of approximately 104 acres, steelmaker WISCO (Wuhan Iron & Steel Corporation) has installed a dual-layer private 5G network – spanning 85 multi-sector macrocells and 100 small cells – to remotely operate heavy machinery at its steel plant in Wuhan (Hubei), and Fujian-based manufacturer Wanhua Chemical has recently built a customized wireless network that will serve upwards of 8,000 5G RedCap (Reduced Capability) devices, primarily surveillance cameras and IoT sensors.

As end user organizations in the United States, Germany, France, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and other countries ramp up their digitization and automation initiatives, private 5G networks are progressively being implemented to support use cases as diverse as wirelessly connected machinery for the rapid reconfiguration of production lines, distributed PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) environments, AMRs (Autonomous Mobile Robots) and AGVs (Automated Guided Vehicles) for intralogistics, AR (Augmented Reality)-assisted guidance and troubleshooting, machine vision-based quality control, wireless software flashing of manufactured vehicles, remote-controlled cranes, unmanned mining equipment, BVLOS (Beyond Visual Line-of-Sight) operation of drones, digital twin models of complex industrial systems, ATO (Automatic Train Operation), video analytics for railway crossing and station platform safety, remote visual inspections of aircraft engine parts, real-time collaboration for flight line maintenance operations, XR (Extended Reality)-based military training, virtual visits for parents to see their infants in NICUs (Neonatal Intensive Care Units), live broadcast production in locations not easily accessible by traditional solutions, operations-critical communications during major sporting events, and optimization of cattle fattening and breeding for Wagyu beef production.

Despite prolonged teething problems in the form of a lack of variety of non-smartphone devices, high 5G IoT module costs due to low shipment volumes, limited competence of end user organizations in cellular wireless systems and conservatism with regards to new technology, early adopters are affirming their faith in the long-term potential of private 5G by investing in networks built independently using new shared and local area licensed spectrum options, in collaboration with private network specialists or via traditional mobile operators. Some private 5G installations have progressed to a stage where practical and tangible benefits – particularly efficiency gains, cost savings and worker safety – are becoming increasingly evident. Notable examples include but are not limited to:

Some of the most technically advanced features of 5G Advanced – 5G's next evolutionarily phase – are also being trialed over private wireless installations. Among other examples, Chinese automaker Great Wall Motor is using an indoor 5G Advanced network for time-critical industrial control within a car roof production line as part of an effort to prevent wire abrasion in mobile application scenarios, which results in production interruptions with an average downtime of 60 hours a year.

In addition, against the backdrop of geopolitical trade tensions and sanctions that have restricted established telecommunications equipment suppliers from operating in specific countries, private 5G networks have emerged as a means to test domestically produced 5G network infrastructure products in controlled environments prior to large-scale deployments or vendor swaps across national or regional public mobile networks. For instance, Russian industrial groups are trialing private 5G networks in pilot zones within their production sites, using indigenously built 5G equipment operating in Band n79 (4.8-4.9 GHz) spectrum.

To capitalize on the long-term potential of private 5G, a number of new alternative suppliers have also developed 5G infrastructure offerings tailored to the specific needs of industrial applications. For example, satellite communications company Globalstar has launched a 3GPP Release 16-compliant multipoint terrestrial RAN system that is optimized for dense private wireless deployments in Industry 4.0 automation environments while German engineering conglomerate Siemens has developed an in-house private 5G network solution for use at its own plants as well as those of industrial customers.  

SNS Telecom & IT estimates that annual investments in private 5G networks for vertical industries will grow at a CAGR of approximately 42% between 2024 and 2027, eventually accounting for nearly $3.5 Billion by the end of 2027. Although much of this growth will be driven by highly localized 5G networks covering geographically limited areas for Industry 4.0 applications in manufacturing and process industries, sub-1 GHz wide area critical communications networks for public safety, utilities and railway communications are also anticipated to begin their transition from LTE, GSM-R and other legacy narrowband technologies to 5G towards the latter half of the forecast period, as 5G Advanced becomes a commercial reality. Among other features for mission-critical networks, 3GPP Release 18 – which defines the first set of 5G Advanced specifications – adds support for 5G NR equipment operating in dedicated spectrum with less than 5 MHz of bandwidth, paving the way for private 5G networks operating in sub-500 MHz, 700 MHz, 850 MHz and 900 MHz bands for public safety broadband, smart grid modernization and FRMCS (Future Railway Mobile Communication System).

The “Private 5G Networks: 2024 – 2030 – Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies & Forecasts” report presents an in-depth assessment of the private 5G network market, including the value chain, market drivers, barriers to uptake, enabling technologies, operational and business models, vertical industries, application scenarios, key trends, future roadmap, standardization, spectrum availability and allocation, regulatory landscape, case studies, ecosystem player profiles and strategies. The report also presents global and regional market size forecasts from 2024 to 2030. The forecasts cover three infrastructure submarkets, 16 vertical industries and five regional markets.

The report comes with an associated Excel datasheet suite covering quantitative data from all numeric forecasts presented in the report, as well as a database of over 7,000 global private cellular engagements – including more than 2,200 private 5G installations – as of Q2’2024.

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Summary of Private 5G Engagements

Below is a summary of existing and planned private 5G engagements across 16 vertical sectors:

Key Findings

The report has the following key findings:

Topics Covered

The report covers the following topics: 

Forecast Segmentation

Market forecasts are provided for each of the following submarkets and their subcategories:

Key Questions Answered 

The report provides answers to the following key questions:

Table of Contents 

1 Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Executive Summary

1.2 Topics Covered

1.3 Forecast Segmentation

1.4 Key Questions Answered

1.5 Key Findings

1.6 Summary of Private 5G Engagements

1.7 Methodology

1.8 Target Audience

2 Chapter 2: An Overview of Private 5G Networks

2.1 An Introduction to the 3GPP-Defined 5G Standard

2.1.1 What is 5G?

2.1.2 5G Service Profiles

2.1.2.1 eMBB (Enhanced Mobile Broadband)

2.1.2.2 URLLC (Ultra-Reliable, Low-Latency Communications)

2.1.2.3 mMTC/mIoT (Massive Machine-Type Communications/Internet of Things)

2.1.3 5G Advanced & the Evolution to 6G

2.1.4 The Significance of Vertical Industries in the 5G Era

2.2 Why Utilize 5G for Private Wireless Networks?

2.2.1 Performance, Mobility, Reliability & Security Characteristics

2.2.2 Ability to Address Both Wide Area & Localized Coverage Needs

2.2.3 Variety of Frequency Bands, Bandwidth Flexibility & Spectral Efficiency

2.2.4 Interworking With Public Mobile Networks & Non-3GPP Technologies

2.2.5 3GPP Support for Industrial-Grade & Mission-Critical Applications

2.2.6 Future-Proof Transition Path Towards 6G Networks

2.2.7 Thriving Ecosystem of Chipsets, Devices & Network Equipment

2.2.8 Economic Viability of Deployment & Operational Costs

2.3 Key Themes Influencing the Adoption of Private 5G Networks

2.3.1 Industry 4.0-Driven Wireless Connectivity Requirements

2.3.2 Critical Communications Broadband Evolution

2.3.3 Localized Cellular Coverage for Enterprise Transformation Initiatives

2.3.4 Neutral Hosting, Smart Cities, Community Broadband & Other Themes

2.4 Practical Aspects of Private 5G Networks

2.4.1 5G Technology Deployment Modes

2.4.1.1 NSA (Non-Standalone) 5G

2.4.1.2 SA (Standalone) 5G

2.4.2 Spectrum Options

2.4.2.1 National Spectrum for Specific Applications

2.4.2.1.1 Defense & PPDR (Public Protection & Disaster Relief)

2.4.2.1.2 Utilities & Critical Infrastructure Industries

2.4.2.1.3 Aviation, Maritime & Railway Communications

2.4.2.1.4 Other Segments

2.4.2.2 Local Area Licensed Spectrum

2.4.2.2.1 Local Area Licenses for Enterprises & Vertical Users

2.4.2.2.2 Local Leasing of Public Mobile Operator Frequencies

2.4.2.2.3 ASA (Authorized Shared Access) & Light Licensing

2.4.2.3 Unlicensed Spectrum

2.4.2.3.1 Designated License-Exempt Bands

2.4.2.3.2 Opportunistic Unlicensed Access

2.4.3 Network Size & Geographic Reach

2.4.3.1 Wide Area Private Cellular Networks

2.4.3.2 Medium-Scale Local Area Networks

2.4.3.3 On-Premise Campus Networks

2.4.4 Operational Scenarios

2.4.4.1 Isolated NPNs (Non-Public Networks)

2.4.4.2 Public Mobile Operator-Integrated NPNs

2.4.4.2.1 Dedicated Mobile Operator RAN Coverage

2.4.4.2.2 Shared RAN With On-Premise Core

2.4.4.2.3 Shared RAN & Control Plane

2.4.4.2.4 NPNs Hosted By Public Networks

2.4.4.3 Virtual Sliced Private Networks

2.4.4.4 Hybrid Public-Private Networks

2.4.4.5 Shared Core Private Networks

2.4.4.6 Secure MVNO (Mobile Virtual Network Operator) Arrangements

2.4.4.7 Other Approaches

2.4.5 Business Models

2.4.5.1 Fully Independent Private Networks

2.4.5.2 Service Provider-Managed Private Networks

2.4.5.3 Hybrid Ownership, Management & Control

2.4.5.4 Private NaaS (Network-as-a-Service)

2.4.5.5 Other Business Models

2.5 The Value Chain of Private 5G Networks

2.5.1 Semiconductor & Enabling Technology Specialists

2.5.2 Terminal OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers)

2.5.3 RAN, Core & Transport Infrastructure Suppliers

2.5.4 Service Providers

2.5.4.1 Critical Communications, Industrial, OT & IT System Integrators

2.5.4.2 Pure-Play Private 5G Network Operators

2.5.4.3 National Mobile Operators

2.5.4.4 MVNOs

2.5.4.5 Neutral Hosts

2.5.4.6 Towercos (Tower Companies)

2.5.4.7 Cloud & Edge Platform Providers

2.5.4.8 Fixed-Line Service Providers

2.5.4.9 Fiber Network Operators

2.5.4.10 Satellite Communications Service Providers

2.5.5 End User Organizations

2.5.6 Other Ecosystem Players

2.6 Market Drivers

2.6.1 Growing Demand for High-Bandwidth & Low-Latency Wireless Applications

2.6.2 Endorsement From the Industry 4.0 & Critical Communications Sectors

2.6.3 Limited Public Cellular Coverage in Indoor, Industrial & Remote Environments

2.6.4 Availability of Suitable Spectrum Options for Private Use

2.6.5 Guaranteed Connectivity & QoS (Quality-of-Service) Control

2.6.6 Greater Levels of Network Security & Data Privacy

2.6.7 Operators' & Vendors' Desire for New Revenue Sources

2.6.8 Government-Funded 5G Innovation Initiatives

2.7 Market Barriers

2.7.1 Cost & ROI (Return-On-Investment) Justification

2.7.2 Technical Complexities of Network Deployment & Operation

2.7.3 Integration With Existing Infrastructure & Applications

2.7.4 Limited Scale Effects Due to Lack of Spectrum Harmonization

2.7.5 Competition From Non-3GPP Technologies & Solutions

2.7.6 5G Terminal Equipment-Related Challenges

2.7.7 Skills Gap & Shortage of Proficient Engineers

2.7.8 Conservatism & Slow Pace of Change

3 Chapter 3: System Architecture & Technologies for Private 5G Networks

3.1 Architectural Components of Private 5G Networks

3.2 UE (User Equipment)

3.2.1 Smartphones & Handportable Devices

3.2.2 Industrial-Grade Routers & Gateways

3.2.3 Mobile Hotspots & Vehicular Terminals

3.2.4 Fixed Wireless CPEs (Customer Premises Equipment)

3.2.5 Tablets & Notebook PCs

3.2.6 Smart Wearables

3.2.7 Cellular IoT Modules

3.2.8 Add-On Dongles

3.3 RAN (Radio Access Network)

3.3.1 NG-RAN – 5G NR Access Network

3.3.1.1 gNBs – 5G NR Base Stations

3.3.1.2 en-gNBs – Secondary Node 5G NR Base Stations

3.3.1.3 ng-eNBs – Next-Generation LTE Base Stations

3.3.2 Architectural Components of gNB Base Stations

3.3.2.1 RUs (Radio Units)

3.3.2.2 Integrated Radio & Baseband Units

3.3.2.3 DUs (Distributed Baseband Units)

3.3.2.4 CUs (Centralized Baseband Units)

3.4 Mobile Core

3.4.1 5GC (5G Core): Core Network for Standalone 5G Implementations

3.4.1.1 Access, Mobility & Session Management

3.4.1.1.1 AMF (Access & Mobility Management Function)

3.4.1.1.2 SMF (Session Management Function)

3.4.1.1.3 UPF (User Plane Function)

3.4.1.2 Subscription & Data Management

3.4.1.2.1 AUSF (Authentication Server Function)

3.4.1.2.2 AAnF (AKMA Anchor Function)

3.4.1.2.3 UDM (Unified Data Management)

3.4.1.2.4 UDR (Unified Data Repository)

3.4.1.2.5 UDSF (Unstructured Data Storage Function)

3.4.1.2.6 UCMF (UE Radio Capability Management Function)

3.4.1.2.7 5G-EIR (5G Equipment Identity Register)

3.4.1.3 Policy & Charging

3.4.1.3.1 PCF (Policy Control Function)

3.4.1.3.2 CHF (Charging Function)

3.4.1.4 Signaling & Routing

3.4.1.4.1 SCP (Service Communication Proxy)

3.4.1.4.2 SEPP (Security Edge Protection Proxy)

3.4.1.4.3 BSF (Binding Support Function)

3.4.1.5 Network Resource Management

3.4.1.5.1 NEF (Network Exposure Function)

3.4.1.5.2 NRF (Network Repository Function)

3.4.1.5.3 NSSF (Network Slice Selection Function)

3.4.1.5.4 NSSAAF (Network Slice-Specific & SNPN Authentication-Authorization Function)

3.4.1.5.5 NSACF (Network Slice Admission Control Function)

3.4.1.6 Data Analytics & Automation

3.4.1.6.1 NWDAF (Network Data Analytics Function)

3.4.1.6.2 AnLF (Analytics Logical Function)

3.4.1.6.3 MTLF (Model Training Logical Function)

3.4.1.6.4 DCCF (Data Collection Coordination Function)

3.4.1.6.5 ADRF (Analytics Data Repository Function)

3.4.1.6.6 MFAF (Messaging Framework Adaptor Function)

3.4.1.7 Location Services

3.4.1.7.1 LMF (Location Management Function)

3.4.1.7.2 GMLC (Gateway Mobile Location Center)

3.4.1.8 Application Enablement

3.4.1.8.1 AFs (Application Functions)

3.4.1.8.2 SMSF (Short Message Service Function)

3.4.1.8.3 CBCF (Cell Broadcast Center Function)

3.4.1.8.4 5G DDNMF (5G Direct Discovery Name Management Function)

3.4.1.8.5 TSCTSF (Time-Sensitive Communication & Time Synchronization Function)

3.4.1.8.6 TSN AF (Time-Sensitive Networking Application Function)

3.4.1.8.7 EASDF (Edge Application Server Discovery Function)

3.4.1.9 Multicast-Broadcast Support

3.4.1.9.1 MB-SMF (Multicast-Broadcast SMF)

3.4.1.9.2 MB-UPF (Multicast-Broadcast UPF)

3.4.1.9.3 MBSF (Multicast-Broadcast Service Function)

3.4.1.9.4 MBSTF (Multicast-Broadcast Service Transport Function)

3.5 Transport Network

3.5.1 Fronthaul: RU-to-DU Transport

3.5.2 Midhaul: DU-to-CU Transport

3.5.3 Backhaul: RAN-to-Core Transport

3.5.4 Physical Transmission Mediums

3.5.4.1 Fiber & Wireline Transport Technologies

3.5.4.1.1 Owned, Lit & Dark Fiber

3.5.4.1.2 Ethernet & IP-Based Transport

3.5.4.1.3 WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing)

3.5.4.1.4 PON (Passive Optical Network)

3.5.4.1.5 OTN (Optical Transport Network)

3.5.4.1.6 DOCSIS, G.fast & Other Technologies

3.5.4.2 Microwave & mmWave (Millimeter Wave) Wireless Links

3.5.4.2.1 Traditional Bands (6 – 42 GHz)

3.5.4.2.2 V-Band (60 GHz)

3.5.4.2.3 E-Band (70/80 GHz)

3.5.4.2.4 W-Band (92 – 114.25 GHz)

3.5.4.2.5 D-Band (130 – 174.8 GHz)

3.5.4.3 Satellite Communications

3.5.4.3.1 GEO (Geostationary Earth Orbit)

3.5.4.3.2 MEO (Medium Earth Orbit)

3.5.4.3.3 LEO (Low Earth Orbit)

3.6 Services & Interconnectivity

3.6.1 End User Application Services

3.6.1.1 Generic Broadband, Messaging & IoT Services

3.6.1.2 IMS Core: VoNR (Voice Over NR) & MMTel (Multimedia Telephony)

3.6.1.3 5G MBS/5MBS (5G Multicast-Broadcast Services)

3.6.1.4 Group Communications & MCS (Mission-Critical Services)

3.6.1.5 IIoT (Industrial IoT), Cyber-Physical Control & Domain-Specific Connected Services

3.6.1.6 ProSe (Proximity-Based Services) for Direct D2D (Device-to-Device) Discovery & Communications

3.6.1.7 Vehicular, Aviation, Maritime & Railway-Related Applications

3.6.1.8 3GPP Service Frameworks for Vertical Industries

3.6.1.8.1 CAPIF (Common API Framework)

3.6.1.8.2 SEAL (Service Enabler Architecture Layer for Verticals)

3.6.1.8.3 EDGEAPP (Architecture for Enabling Edge Applications)

3.6.1.9 VAL (Vertical Application Layer) Enablers

3.6.1.9.1 V2X (Vehicle-to-Everything)

3.6.1.9.2 UAS (Uncrewed Aerial Systems)

3.6.1.9.3 5GMARCH/MSGin5G (Messaging in 5G)

3.6.1.9.4 FF (Factories of the Future)

3.6.1.9.5 PINAPP (Personal IoT Networks), XR (Extended Reality) & Others

3.6.2 Interconnectivity With 3GPP & Non-3GPP Networks

3.6.2.1 3GPP Roaming & Service Continuity

3.6.2.1.1 National & International Roaming

3.6.2.1.2 Service Continuity Outside Network Footprint

3.6.2.2 Non-3GPP Network Integration

3.6.2.2.1 N3IWF (Non-3GPP Interworking Function)

3.6.2.2.2 TNGF (Trusted Non-3GPP Gateway Function)

3.6.2.2.3 TWIF (Trusted WLAN Interworking Function)

3.6.2.2.4 NSWOF (Non-Seamless WLAN Offload Function)

3.6.2.2.5 W-AGF (Wireline Access Gateway Function)

3.6.2.2.6 IWF (Interworking Function) for LMR (Land Mobile Radio)

3.6.2.2.7 ATSSS (Access Traffic Steering, Switching & Splitting)

3.7 Key Enabling Technologies & Concepts

3.7.1 3GPP Support for NPNs (Non-Public Networks)

3.7.1.1 Types of NPNs

3.7.1.1.1 SNPNs (Standalone NPNs)

3.7.1.1.2 PNI-NPNs (Public Network-Integrated NPNs)

3.7.1.2 SNPN Identification & Selection

3.7.1.3 PNI-NPN Resource Allocation & Isolation

3.7.1.4 CAG (Closed Access Group) for Cell Access Control

3.7.1.5 Mobility, Roaming & Service Continuity

3.7.1.6 Interworking Between SNPNs & Public Networks

3.7.1.7 UE Configuration & Subscription-Related Aspects

3.7.1.8 Other 3GPP-Defined Capabilities for NPNs

3.7.2 Mobile Broadband Evolution

3.7.2.1 Massive MIMO, Beamforming & Advanced Antenna Systems

3.7.2.2 Air Interface Design & Optimizations

3.7.2.3 CA (Carrier Aggregation) & Multi-Carrier Operations

3.7.2.4 Expansion Into Higher Frequency Spectrum Bands

3.7.3 Industry 4.0 & Cellular IoT

3.7.3.1 URLLC Techniques: High-Reliability & Low-Latency Enablers

3.7.3.2 5G LAN (Local Area Network)-Type Service

3.7.3.3 Integration With IEEE 802.1 TSN (Time-Sensitive Networking) Systems

3.7.3.4 Native 3GPP Framework for TSC (Time-Sensitive Communications)

3.7.3.5 Support for IETF DetNet (Deterministic Networking)

3.7.3.6 5G NR Light: RedCap (Reduced Capability) UE Type

3.7.3.7 eMTC, NB-IoT & mMTC: Wide Area & High-Density IoT Applications

3.7.4 Critical Communications

3.7.4.1 MCX (Mission-Critical PTT, Video & Data)

3.7.4.2 QPP (QoS, Priority & Preemption)

3.7.4.3 IOPS (Isolated Operation for Public Safety)

3.7.4.4 Cell Site & Infrastructure Hardening

3.7.4.5 HPUE (High-Power User Equipment)

3.7.4.6 Other UE-Related Functional Enhancements

3.7.5 High-Precision Positioning

3.7.5.1 Assisted-GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System)

3.7.5.2 RAN-Based Positioning Techniques

3.7.5.3 RAN-Independent Methods

3.7.6 Edge Computing

3.7.6.1 Optimizing Latency, Service Performance & Backhaul Costs

3.7.6.2 3GPP-Defined Features for Edge Computing Support

3.7.6.3 Public vs. Private Edge Computing

3.7.7 Network Slicing

3.7.7.1 Logical Partitioning of Network Resources

3.7.7.2 3GPP Functions, Identifiers & Procedures for Slicing

3.7.7.3 RAN Slicing

3.7.7.4 Mobile Core Slicing

3.7.7.5 Transport Network Slicing

3.7.7.6 UE-Based Network Slicing Features

3.7.7.7 Management & Orchestration Aspects

3.7.8 Network Sharing

3.7.8.1 Service-Specific PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network) IDs

3.7.8.2 DNN (Data Network Name)-Based Isolation

3.7.8.3 GWCN (Gateway Core Network): Core Network Sharing

3.7.8.4 MOCN (Multi-Operator Core Network): RAN & Spectrum Sharing

3.7.8.5 MORAN (Multi-Operator RAN): RAN Sharing Without Spectrum Pooling

3.7.8.6 DECOR (Dedicated Core) & eDECOR (Enhanced DECOR)

3.7.8.7 Roaming in Non-Overlapping Service Areas

3.7.8.8 Passive Sharing of Infrastructure Resources

3.7.9 E2E (End-to-End) Security

3.7.9.1 UE Authentication Framework

3.7.9.2 Subscriber Privacy

3.7.9.3 Air Interface Confidentiality & Integrity

3.7.9.4 Resilience Against Radio Jamming

3.7.9.5 RAN, Core & Transport Network Security

3.7.9.6 Security Aspects of Network Slicing

3.7.9.7 Application Domain Protection

3.7.9.8 Other Security Considerations

3.7.10 Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum

3.7.10.1 DSS (Dynamic Spectrum Sharing): LTE & 5G NR Coexistence

3.7.10.2 CBRS (Citizens Broadband Radio Service): Three-Tiered Sharing

3.7.10.3 LSA (Licensed Shared Access) & eLSA (Evolved LSA): Two-Tiered Sharing

3.7.10.4 AFC (Automated Frequency Coordination): License-Exempt Sharing

3.7.10.5 Local Area Licensing of Shared Spectrum

3.7.10.6 5G NR-U (NR in Unlicensed Spectrum)

3.7.11 Rapidly Deployable 5G Network Systems

3.7.11.1 NIB (Network-in-a-Box) Systems

3.7.11.2 Vehicular COWs (Cells-on-Wheels)

3.7.11.3 Aerial Cell Sites

3.7.11.4 Maritime Cellular Platforms

3.7.12 Direct Communications & Coverage Expansion

3.7.12.1 Sidelink for Direct Mode D2D Communications

3.7.12.2 UE-to-Network & UE-to-UE Relays

3.7.12.3 Indoor & Outdoor Small Cells

3.7.12.4 DAS (Distributed Antenna Systems)

3.7.12.5 IAB (Integrated Access & Backhaul)

3.7.12.6 Mobile IAB: VMRs (Vehicle-Mounted Relays)

3.7.12.7 NCRs (Network-Controlled Repeaters)

3.7.12.8 NTNs (Non-Terrestrial Networks)

3.7.12.9 ATG/A2G (Air-to-Ground) Connectivity

3.7.13 Cloud-Native, Software-Driven & Open Networking

3.7.13.1 Cloud-Native Technologies

3.7.13.2 Microservices & SBA (Service-Based Architecture)

3.7.13.3 Containerization of Network Functions

3.7.13.4 NFV (Network Functions Virtualization)

3.7.13.5 SDN (Software-Defined Networking)

3.7.13.6 Cloud Compute, Storage & Networking Infrastructure

3.7.13.7 APIs (Application Programming Interfaces)

3.7.13.8 Open RAN & Core Architectures

3.7.14 Network Intelligence & Automation

3.7.14.1 AI (Artificial Intelligence)

3.7.14.2 Machine & Deep Learning

3.7.14.3 Big Data & Advanced Analytics

3.7.14.4 SON (Self-Organizing Networks)

3.7.14.5 Intelligent Control, Management & Orchestration

3.7.14.6 Support for Network Intelligence & Automation in 3GPP Standards

4 Chapter 4: Key Vertical Industries & Applications

4.1 Cross-Sector & Enterprise Application Capabilities

4.1.1 Mobile Broadband

4.1.2 FWA (Fixed Wireless Access)

4.1.3 Voice & Messaging Services

4.1.4 High-Definition Video Transmission

4.1.5 Telepresence & Video Conferencing

4.1.6 Multimedia Broadcasting & Multicasting

4.1.7 IoT (Internet of Things) Networking

4.1.8 Wireless Connectivity for Wearables

4.1.9 Untethered AR/VR/MR (Augmented, Virtual & Mixed Reality)

4.1.10 Real-Time Holographic Projections

4.1.11 Tactile Internet & Haptic Feedback

4.1.12 Precise Positioning & Tracking

4.1.13 Industrial Automation

4.1.14 Remote Control of Machines

4.1.15 Connected Mobile Robotics

4.1.16 Unmanned & Autonomous Vehicles

4.1.17 BVLOS (Beyond Visual Line-of-Sight) Operation of Drones

4.1.18 Data-Driven Analytics & Insights

4.1.19 Sensor-Equipped Digital Twins

4.1.20 Predictive Maintenance of Assets

4.2 Vertical Industries & Specific Application Scenarios

4.2.1 Agriculture

4.2.1.1 Intelligent Monitoring of Crop, Soil & Weather Conditions

4.2.1.2 IoT & Advanced Analytics-Driven Yield Optimization

4.2.1.3 Sensor-Based Smart Irrigation Control Systems

4.2.1.4 Real-Time Tracking & Geofencing in Farms

4.2.1.5 Livestock & Aquaculture Health Management

4.2.1.6 Video-Based Remote Veterinary Inspections

4.2.1.7 Unmanned Autonomous Tractors & Farm Vehicles

4.2.1.8 Robots for Planting, Weeding & Harvesting

4.2.1.9 5G-Equipped Agricultural Drones

4.2.1.10 Connected Greenhouses & Vertical Farms

4.2.2 Aviation

4.2.2.1 Inflight Connectivity for Passengers & Cabin Crew

4.2.2.2 Connected Airports for Enhanced Traveler & Visitor Experience

4.2.2.3 Coordination of Ground Support Equipment, Vehicles & Personnel

4.2.2.4 ATM (Air Traffic Management) for Drones & Urban Air Mobility Vehicles

4.2.2.5 Wireless Upload of EFB (Electronic Flight Bag) & IFE (In-Flight Entertainment) Updates

4.2.2.6 Aircraft Data Offload for Operational & Maintenance Purposes

4.2.2.7 Video Surveillance of Airport Surface & Terminal Areas

4.2.2.8 5G-Enabled Remote Inspection & Repair of Aircraft

4.2.2.9 Navigation, Weather & Other IoT Sensors

4.2.2.10 Smart Baggage Handling

4.2.2.11 Asset Awareness & Tracking

4.2.2.12 Passenger Flow & Resource Management

4.2.2.13 Automation of Check-In & Boarding Procedures

4.2.2.14 Intelligent Airport Service Robots

4.2.3 Broadcasting

4.2.3.1 3GPP-Based PMSE (Program Making & Special Events)

4.2.3.2 Live AV (Audio-Visual) Media Production Using NPNs

4.2.3.3 Private 5G-Enabled Production in Remote Locations

4.2.3.4 Network Slicing for Contribution Feeds

4.2.3.5 Wire-Free Cameras & Microphones

4.2.3.6 Multicast & Broadcast Content Distribution

4.2.4 Construction

4.2.4.1 Wireless Connectivity for Construction Sites & Field Offices

4.2.4.2 Instantaneous Access to Business-Critical Applications

4.2.4.3 5G-Based Remote Control of Heavy Machinery

4.2.4.4 Autonomous Mobile Robots for Construction

4.2.4.5 IoT Sensor-Driven Maintenance of Equipment

4.2.4.6 Video Surveillance & Analytics for Site Security

4.2.4.7 Real-Time Visibility of Personnel, Assets & Materials

4.2.4.8 Aerial Surveying & Monitoring of Construction Sites

4.2.5 Education

4.2.5.1 Remote & Distance Learning Services

4.2.5.2 Mobile Access to Academic Resources

4.2.5.3 5G-Connected Smart Classrooms

4.2.5.4 Automation of Administrative Tasks

4.2.5.5 Personalized & Engaging Learning

4.2.5.6 AR/VR-Based Immersive Lessons

4.2.5.7 5G-Enabled Virtual Field Trips

4.2.5.8 Educational Telepresence Robots

4.2.6 Forestry

4.2.6.1 Wireless Connectivity for Forestry Operations & Recreation

4.2.6.2 5G-Facilitated Teleoperation of Forestry Equipment

4.2.6.3 Autonomous Harvesting & Milling Machinery

4.2.6.4 Real-Time Tracking of Equipment, Vehicles & Personnel

4.2.6.5 Cellular IoT Sensors for Biological & Environmental Monitoring

4.2.6.6 Wireless Cameras for Wildlife Observation, Conservation & Security

4.2.6.7 Early Wildfire Detection & Containment Systems

4.2.6.8 Drones for Search & Rescue Operations

4.2.7 Healthcare

4.2.7.1 5G-Connected Smart Hospitals & Healthcare Facilities

4.2.7.2 Wireless Transmission of Medical Imagery & Rich Datasets

4.2.7.3 Real-Time Monitoring of Patients in Acute & Intensive Care

4.2.7.4 Telehealth Video Consultations for Visual Assessment

4.2.7.5 Connectivity for AI-Based Healthcare Applications

4.2.7.6 AR Systems for Complex Medical Procedures

4.2.7.7 Remote-Controlled Surgery & Examination

4.2.7.8 Assisted Living & Rehabilitation Robotics

4.2.7.9 Immersive VR-Based Medical & Surgical Training

4.2.7.10 Connected Ambulances for EMS (Emergency Medical Services)

4.2.8 Manufacturing

4.2.8.1 Untethered Connectivity for Production & Process Automation

4.2.8.2 Wireless Motion Control & C2C (Control-to-Control) Communications

4.2.8.3 Cellular-Equipped Mobile Control Panels

4.2.8.4 Mobile Robots & AGVs (Automated Guided Vehicles)

4.2.8.5 Autonomous Forklifts & Warehouse Robotics

4.2.8.6 AR-Facilitated Factory Floor Operations

4.2.8.7 Machine Vision-Based Quality Inspection

4.2.8.8 Closed-Loop Process Control

4.2.8.9 Process & Environmental Monitoring

4.2.8.10 Precise Indoor Positioning for Asset Management

4.2.8.11 Remote Access & Maintenance of Equipment

4.2.9 Military

4.2.9.1 5G-Based Tactical Battlefield Communications

4.2.9.2 Smart Military Bases & Command Posts

4.2.9.3 ISR (Intelligence, Surveillance & Reconnaissance)

4.2.9.4 Command & Control of Weapon Systems

4.2.9.5 Remote Operation of Robotics & Unmanned Assets

4.2.9.6 AR HUD (Heads-Up Display) Systems

4.2.9.7 Wireless VR/MR-Based Military Training

4.2.9.8 Perimeter Security & Force Protection

4.2.10 Mining

4.2.10.1 Safety-Critical Communications in Remote Mining Environments

4.2.10.2 Wireless Control of Drilling, Excavation & Related Equipment

4.2.10.3 Automated Loading, Haulage & Train Operations

4.2.10.4 Video-Based Monitoring of Personnel & Assets

4.2.10.5 Underground Positioning & Geofencing

4.2.10.6 Smart Ventilation & Water Management

4.2.10.7 Real-Time Operational Intelligence

4.2.10.8 AR & VR for Mining Operations

4.2.11 Oil & Gas

4.2.11.1 Wireless Connectivity for Remote Exploration & Production Sites

4.2.11.2 Critical Voice & Data-Based Mobile Workforce Communications

4.2.11.3 Push-to-Video & Telepresence Conferencing for Field Operations

4.2.11.4 Cellular-Equipped Surveillance Cameras for Situational Awareness

4.2.11.5 IoT Sensor-Enabled Remote Monitoring & Automation of Processes

4.2.11.6 SCADA (Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition) Communications

4.2.11.7 Location Services for Worker Safety & Asset Tracking

4.2.11.8 AR Smart Helmets for Hands-Free Remote Assistance

4.2.11.9 Predictive Maintenance of Oil & Gas Facilities

4.2.11.10 Mobile Robots for Safety Hazard Inspections

4.2.12 Ports & Maritime Transport

4.2.12.1 Critical Communications for Port Workers

4.2.12.2 Automation of Port & Terminal Operations

4.2.12.3 5G-Connected AGVs for Container Transport

4.2.12.4 Remote-Controlled Cranes & Terminal Tractors

4.2.12.5 Video Analytics for Operational Purposes

4.2.12.6 Environmental & Condition Monitoring

4.2.12.7 Port Traffic Management & Control

4.2.12.8 AR & VR Applications for Port Digitization

4.2.12.9 Unmanned Aerial Inspections of Port Facilities

4.2.12.10 Private Cellular-Enabled Maritime Communications

4.2.12.11 Wireless Ship-to-Shore Connectivity in Nearshore Waters

4.2.12.12 5G-Facilitated Remote Steering of Unmanned Vessels

4.2.13 Public Safety

4.2.13.1 Mission-Critical PTT Voice Communications

4.2.13.2 Real-Time Video & High-Resolution Imagery

4.2.13.3 Messaging, File Transfer & Presence Services

4.2.13.4 Secure & Seamless Mobile Broadband Access

4.2.13.5 Location-Based Services & Enhanced Mapping

4.2.13.6 Multimedia CAD (Computer-Aided Dispatch)

4.2.13.7 Massive-Scale Video Surveillance & Analytics

4.2.13.8 Smart Glasses & AR Headgear for First Responders

4.2.13.9 5G-Equipped Police, Firefighting & Rescue Robots

4.2.13.10 5G MBS/5MBS in High-Density Environments

4.2.13.11 Sidelink-Based Direct Mode Communications

4.2.14 Railways

4.2.14.1 FRMCS (Future Railway Mobile Communication System)

4.2.14.2 Train-to-Ground & Train-to-Train Connectivity

4.2.14.3 Wireless Intra-Train Communications

4.2.14.4 Rail Operations-Critical Voice, Data & Video Services

4.2.14.5 ATO (Automatic Train Operation) & Traffic Management

4.2.14.6 Video Surveillance for Operational Safety & Security

4.2.14.7 Smart Maintenance of Railway Infrastructure

4.2.14.8 Intelligent Management of Logistics Facilities

4.2.14.9 Onboard Broadband Internet Access

4.2.14.10 PIS (Passenger Information Systems)

4.2.14.11 Smart Rail & Metro Station Services

4.2.15 Utilities

4.2.15.1 Multi-Service FANs (Field Area Networks)

4.2.15.2 Critical Applications for Field Workforce Communications

4.2.15.3 AMI (Advanced Metering Infrastructure)

4.2.15.4 DA (Distribution Automation) Systems

4.2.15.5 Microgrid & DER (Distributed Energy Resource) Integration

4.2.15.6 5G-Enabled VPPs (Virtual Power Plants)

4.2.15.7 Low-Latency SCADA Applications for Utilities

4.2.15.8 Teleprotection of Transmission & Distribution Grids

4.2.15.9 Video Monitoring for Critical Infrastructure Protection

4.2.15.10 Sensor-Based Detection of Water & Gas Leaks

4.2.15.11 AR Information Overlays for Repairs & Maintenance

4.2.15.12 Drone & Robot-Assisted Inspections of Utility Assets

4.2.15.13 Local Wireless Connectivity for Remote & Offshore Facilities

4.2.16 Warehousing & Other Verticals

5 Chapter 5: Spectrum Availability, Allocation & Usage

5.1 National & Local Area Licensed Spectrum

5.1.1 Low-Band (Sub-1 GHz)

5.1.1.1 200 – 400 MHz

5.1.1.2 410 & 450 MHz

5.1.1.3 600 MHz

5.1.1.4 700 MHz

5.1.1.5 800 MHz

5.1.1.6 900 MHz

5.1.2 Mid-Band (1 – 6 GHz)

5.1.2.1 1.4 GHz

5.1.2.2 1.6 GHz

5.1.2.3 1.8 GHz

5.1.2.4 1.9 GHz

5.1.2.5 2.1 GHz

5.1.2.6 2.3 GHz

5.1.2.7 2.4 GHz

5.1.2.8 2.5 GHz

5.1.2.9 2.6 GHz

5.1.2.10 3.4 GHz

5.1.2.11 3.5 GHz CBRS PAL Tier

5.1.2.12 3.7 – 3.8 GHz

5.1.2.13 3.8 – 4.2 GHz

5.1.2.14 4.6 – 4.9 GHz

5.1.2.15 Other Bands

5.1.3 High-Band mmWave (Millimeter Wave)

5.1.3.1 26 GHz

5.1.3.2 28 GHz

5.1.3.3 37 GHz

5.1.3.4 Other Bands

5.2 License-Exempt (Unlicensed) Spectrum

5.2.1 Sub-1 GHz Bands (470 – 790/800/900 MHz)

5.2.2 1.8 GHz DECT Guard Band

5.2.3 1.9 GHz sXGP Band

5.2.4 2.4 GHz (2,400 – 2,483.5 MHz)

5.2.5 3.5 GHz CBRS GAA Tier

5.2.6 5 GHz (5,150 – 5,925 MHz)

5.2.7 6 GHz (5,925 – 7,125 MHz)

5.2.8 60 GHz (57 – 71 GHz)

5.2.9 Other Bands

5.3 North America

5.3.1 United States

5.3.2 Canada

5.4 Asia Pacific

5.4.1 Australia

5.4.2 New Zealand

5.4.3 China

5.4.4 Hong Kong

5.4.5 Taiwan

5.4.6 Japan

5.4.7 South Korea

5.4.8 Singapore

5.4.9 Malaysia

5.4.10 Indonesia

5.4.11 Philippines

5.4.12 Thailand

5.4.13 Vietnam

5.4.14 Laos

5.4.15 Myanmar

5.4.16 India

5.4.17 Pakistan

5.4.18 Rest of Asia Pacific

5.5 Europe

5.5.1 United Kingdom

5.5.1.1 Great Britain

5.5.1.2 Northern Ireland

5.5.2 Republic of Ireland

5.5.3 France

5.5.4 Germany

5.5.5 Belgium

5.5.6 Netherlands

5.5.7 Switzerland

5.5.8 Austria

5.5.9 Italy

5.5.10 Spain

5.5.11 Portugal

5.5.12 Sweden

5.5.13 Norway

5.5.14 Denmark

5.5.15 Finland

5.5.16 Estonia

5.5.17 Czech Republic

5.5.18 Poland

5.5.19 Ukraine

5.5.20 Türkiye

5.5.21 Cyprus

5.5.22 Greece

5.5.23 Bulgaria

5.5.24 Romania

5.5.25 Hungary

5.5.26 Slovenia

5.5.27 Croatia

5.5.28 Russia

5.5.29 Belarus

5.5.30 Rest of Europe

5.6 Middle East & Africa

5.6.1 Saudi Arabia

5.6.2 United Arab Emirates

5.6.3 Qatar

5.6.4 Oman

5.6.5 Bahrain

5.6.6 Kuwait

5.6.7 Iraq

5.6.8 Jordan

5.6.9 Israel

5.6.10 Egypt

5.6.11 Algeria

5.6.12 Morocco

5.6.13 Tunisia

5.6.14 South Africa

5.6.15 Botswana

5.6.16 Zambia

5.6.17 Kenya

5.6.18 Ethiopia

5.6.19 Angola

5.6.20 Republic of the Congo

5.6.21 Gabon

5.6.22 Nigeria

5.6.23 Uganda

5.6.24 Ghana

5.6.25 Senegal

5.6.26 Rest of the Middle East & Africa

5.7 Latin & Central America

5.7.1 Brazil

5.7.2 Mexico

5.7.3 Argentina

5.7.4 Colombia

5.7.5 Chile

5.7.6 Peru

5.7.7 Ecuador

5.7.8 Bolivia

5.7.9 Dominican Republic

5.7.10 Bardados

5.7.11 Trinidad & Tobago

5.7.12 Suriname

5.7.13 Rest of Latin & Central America

6 Chapter 6: Standardization, Regulatory & Collaborative Initiatives

6.1 3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project)

6.1.1 Release 15: 5G eMBB Capabilities, Introduction of Network Slicing & New Operating Bands

6.1.2 Release 16: 3GPP Support for NPNs, 5G URLLC, TSN, NR-U & Vertical Application Enablers

6.1.3 Release 17: NPN Enhancements, Edge Computing, TSC, Expansion of IIoT Features, RedCap & NTN Connectivity

6.1.4 Release 18: 5G Advanced, Further NPN Refinements, DetNet, Intelligent Automation, Spectrum Flexibility & XR Services

6.1.5 Releases 19, 20, 21 & Beyond: Succession From 5G Advanced to the 6G Evolution

6.2 450 MHz Alliance

6.2.1 Promoting 3GPP Technologies in the 380 – 470 MHz Frequency Range

6.3 5G-ACIA (5G Alliance for Connected Industries and Automation)

6.3.1 Maximizing the Applicability of 5G Technology in the Industrial Domain

6.4 5GAIA (5G Applications Industry Array)

6.4.1 Advancing the Development of China's 5G Applications Industry

6.5 5G Campus Network Alliance

6.5.1 Supporting the Market Development of 5G Campus Networks in Germany

6.6 5GDNA (5G Deterministic Networking Alliance)

6.6.1 Industry Collaboration & Promotion of 5GDN (5G Deterministic Networking)

6.7 5GFF (5G Future Forum)

6.7.1 Accelerating the Delivery of 5G MEC (Multi-Access Edge Computing) Solutions

6.8 5G Forum (South Korea)

6.8.1 Expanding Convergence Between 5G Technology & Vertical Industries

6.9 5G Health Association

6.9.1 Interfacing 5G-Based Connectivity & Healthcare Applications

6.10 5G-MAG (5G Media Action Group)

6.10.1 5G-Based NPNs in Media Production

6.11 5GMF (Fifth Generation Mobile Communication Promotion Forum, Japan)

6.11.1 Initiatives Related to Local 5G Networks in Japan

6.12 5GSA (5G Slicing Association)

6.12.1 Addressing Vertical Industry Requirements for 5G Network Slicing

6.13 6G-IA (6G Smart Networks and Services Industry Association)

6.13.1 Private 5G-Related Projects & Activities

6.14 AGURRE (Association of Major Users of Operational Radio Networks, France)

6.14.1 Spectrum Access, Regulatory Framework & Industrial Ecosystem for Private Mobile Networks

6.15 APCO (Association of Public-Safety Communications Officials) International

6.15.1 Public Safety 5G-Related Advocacy Efforts

6.16 ATIS (Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions)

6.16.1 Deployment & Operational Requirements of 5G-Based NPNs

6.16.2 Shared HNI & IBN Administration for CBRS Spectrum

6.16.3 Other Private 5G-Related Initiatives

6.17 BTG (Dutch Association of Large-Scale ICT & Telecommunications Users)

6.17.1 KMBG (Dutch Critical Mobile Broadband Users) Expert Group

6.18 B-TrunC (Broadband Trunking Communication) Industry Alliance

6.18.1 B-TrunC Standard for 3GPP-Based Critical Communications

6.19 CAMET (China Association of Metros)

6.19.1 Adoption of 3GPP Networks for Urban Rail Transit Systems

6.20 CEPT (European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations)

6.20.1 Common Spectrum Policies for Local 5G, PPDR Broadband & FRMCS

6.21 DSA (Dynamic Spectrum Alliance)

6.21.1 Promoting Unlicensed & Dynamic Access to Spectrum

6.22 Electricity Canada (Canadian Electricity Association)

6.22.1 PVNO & Dedicated Spectrum for Smart Grid Communications

6.23 ENTELEC (Energy Telecommunications and Electrical Association)

6.23.1 Policy Advocacy & Other Private 5G-Related Activities

6.24 EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute)

6.24.1 Research & Guidelines in Support of 3GPP-Based Utility Communications

6.25 ERA (European Union Agency for Railways)

6.25.1 Evolution of Railway Radio Communication Project

6.26 ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute)

6.26.1 Technical Specifications for FRMCS, PPDR Broadband, MCX & TETRA-3GPP Interworking

6.26.2 Other Work Relevant to Private 5G Networks

6.27 EU-Rail (Europe’s Rail Joint Undertaking)

6.27.1 FRMCS-Related Research & Innovation Activities

6.28 EUTC (European Utilities Telecom Council)

6.28.1 Addressing 5G-Related Requirements for European Utilities

6.29 EUWENA (European Users of Enterprise Wireless Networks Association)

6.29.1 Catalyzing the Wider Adoption of 3GPP-Based Private Networks

6.30 EWA (Enterprise Wireless Alliance)

6.30.1 Supporting the Private Wireless Industry in the United States

6.31 free5GC

6.31.1 Open-Source 5GC Software

6.32 GSA (Global Mobile Suppliers Association)

6.32.1 Advocacy for Private Mobile Networks

6.33 GSMA (GSM Association)

6.33.1 Guidelines for 5G Private & Dedicated Networks

6.34 GUTMA (Global UTM Association)

6.34.1 ACJA (Aerial Connectivity Joint Activity) Initiative

6.35 ITU (International Telecommunication Union)

6.35.1 International & Regional Harmonization of 5G Spectrum

6.35.2 Defining the Role of IMT-2020 to Support Vertical Applications

6.36 JOTS (Joint Operators Technical Specification) Forum

6.36.1 NHIB (Neutral Host In-Building) Specification

6.37 JRC (Joint Radio Company)

6.37.1 Supporting 5G-Based Smart Grid Initiatives

6.38 KRRI (Korea Railroad Research Institute)

6.38.1 Functional Testing & Certification of 3GPP-Based Railway Communications Systems

6.39 LF (Linux Foundation)

6.39.1 Magma Mobile Core Software Platform

6.39.2 LF Networking's 5G Super Blueprint

6.39.3 LF Edge's Akraino Private 5G ICN (Integrated Cloud-Native) Blueprint

6.39.4 Other Projects Relevant to Private 5G Networks

6.40 MFA (Alliance for Private Networks)

6.40.1 Uni5G Technology Blueprints for Private 5G Networks

6.40.2 Network Identifier Program Supporting Private & Neutral Host Networks

6.41 MSSA (Mobile Satellite Services Association)

6.41.1 Advancing the Global Direct-to-Device NTN Ecosystem

6.42 NGA (Next G Alliance)

6.42.1 Building the Foundation for North American Leadership in 6G

6.43 NGMN (Next-Generation Mobile Networks) Alliance

6.43.1 Work Related to Private 5G & Network Slicing

6.44 NSC (National Spectrum Consortium)

6.44.1 Enhancing Spectrum Superiority & 5G Capabilities for Federal Users

6.45 OCP (Open Compute Project) Foundation

6.45.1 Initiatives Aimed at Open Designs for Telco Hardware

6.46 one6G Association

6.46.1 Driving 6G Innovation & Development Across Vertical Industries

6.47 ONF (Open Networking Foundation)

6.47.1 Aether Private 5G Connected Edge Platform

6.47.2 SD-RAN, SD-Core, OMEC & Other Relevant Projects

6.48 OnGo Alliance

6.48.1 Promoting 5G OnGo Wireless Network Technology

6.48.2 Technical Specifications & Guidelines for 5G NR-Based CBRS Networks

6.48.3 Product Certification Program Supporting Multi-Vendor Interoperability

6.49 OPC Foundation

6.49.1 OPC UA (Unified Architecture) Over 5G for Industry 4.0 Applications

6.50 Open RAN Policy Coalition

6.50.1 Promoting Policies to Drive the Adoption of Open RAN

6.51 Open5GCore

6.51.1 Vendor-Independent 5GC Implementation

6.52 Open5GS & NextEPC

6.52.1 Open-Source 5GC & EPC Software

6.53 OpenInfra (Open Infrastructure) Foundation

6.53.1 StarlingX Software Stack for Ultra-Low Latency Edge Applications

6.53.2 OpenStack Cloud Software & Other Projects

6.54 O-RAN Alliance

6.54.1 O-RAN Architecture Specifications

6.54.2 O-RAN SC (Software Community)

6.54.3 Testing & Integration Support

6.55 OSA (OpenAirInterface Software Alliance)

6.55.1 OAI (OpenAirInterface) 5G RAN, Core & MOSAIC5G Projects

6.56 PIA (PSBN Innovation Alliance)

6.56.1 PSBN (Public Safety Broadband Network) Governance in Canada's Ontario Province

6.57 PMeV (German Professional Mobile Radio Association)

6.57.1 Professional Broadband & 5G Campus Network-Related Activities

6.58 PSBTA (Public Safety Broadband Technology Association)

6.58.1 Public Safety 5G-Related Activities

6.59 PSCE (Public Safety Communication Europe)

6.59.1 Public Safety Broadband-Related Standardization Activities

6.59.2 BroadX Projects: Pan-European Interoperable Mobile Broadband System for Public Safety

6.60 Safe-Net Forum

6.60.1 Technical & Policy Guidance for 3GPP-Based Critical Communications Networks

6.61 SCF (Small Cell Forum)

6.61.1 Reference Blueprints for Private 5G Networks

6.61.2 Neutral Hosting, Edge Computing & Other Relevant Work

6.62 Seamless Air Alliance

6.62.1 Leading Global Standards for Inflight Connectivity

6.63 SimpleRAN

6.63.1 Ensuring Interoperability & Transparency in the vRAN Ecosystem

6.64 srsRAN Project

6.64.1 Open-Source 5G Software Suite

6.65 TCA (Trusted Connectivity Alliance)

6.65.1 5G SIM/eSIM Recommendations for Private Networks

6.66 TCCA (The Critical Communications Association)

6.66.1 CCBG (Critical Communications Broadband Group)

6.66.2 BIG (Broadband Industry Group)

6.66.3 SCADA, Smart Grid & IoT Group

6.66.4 Future Technologies Group

6.67 techUK

6.67.1 SPF (Spectrum Policy Forum)

6.68 TIA (Telecommunications Industry Association)

6.68.1 Defining Requirements for LMR-3GPP Interworking & Critical Broadband Capabilities

6.69 TIP (Telecom Infra Project)

6.69.1 5G Private Networks Solution Group

6.69.2 Neutral Host NaaS Solution Group

6.69.3 OpenRAN & Open Core Network Groups

6.69.4 Other Relevant Product & Solution Groups

6.70 TTA (Telecommunications Technology Association, South Korea)

6.70.1 Standardization Efforts for 3GPP-Based Public Safety, Railway & Maritime Communications

6.71 U.S. NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology)

6.71.1 Public Safety Broadband & 5G-Related R&D Initiatives

6.72 U.S. NPSTC (National Public Safety Telecommunications Council)

6.72.1 Leadership for LMR-3GPP Interworking & Public Safety Broadband Communications

6.73 U.S. NTIA (National Telecommunications and Information Administration)

6.73.1 Wireless Innovation & Supply Chain Security

6.74 UBBA (Utility Broadband Alliance)

6.74.1 Championing the Advancement of Private Broadband Networks for Utilities

6.75 UIC (International Union of Railways)

6.75.1 FRMCS Program for the Replacement of GSM-R Networks

6.76 UK5G Innovation Network

6.76.1 Promoting Private 5G Adoption Projects, Testbeds & Trials

6.77 UNIFE (The European Rail Supply Industry Association)

6.77.1 UNITEL Committee: Development & Implementation of FRMCS

6.78 UTC (Utilities Technology Council)

6.78.1 Private 5G-Related Advocacy, Technology Development & Policy Efforts

6.79 UTCAL (Utilities Telecom & Technology Council América Latina)

6.79.1 Promoting Private 5G Networks for Latin American Utilities

6.80 VDMA (German Mechanical and Plant Engineering Association)

6.80.1 Guidelines for 5G in Mechanical & Plant Engineering

6.81 WBA (Wireless Broadband Alliance)

6.81.1 5G & Wi-Fi Convergence in Private 5G Networks

6.81.2 OpenRoaming for Private 5G

6.82 WhiteSpace Alliance

6.82.1 Promoting the Use of 3GPP, IEEE & IETF Standards for TVWS Spectrum

6.83 WInnForum (Wireless Innovation Forum)

6.83.1 CBRS Standards for the Implementation of FCC Rulemaking

6.83.2 6 GHz Unlicensed Sharing & Other Committees

6.84 XGP (eXtended Global Platform) Forum

6.84.1 Development & Promotion of the sXGP Unlicensed Service

6.85 Others

6.85.1 Vendor-Led Private 5G Alliances

6.85.2 National Government Agencies & Regulators

6.85.3 Regional & Country-Specific Associations

6.85.4 Global Industry Initiatives & Organizations

7 Chapter 7: Case Studies of Private 5G Networks

7.1 ABP (Associated British Ports): Shared Access License-Enabled Private 5G Network for Port of Southampton

7.1.1 Operational Model

7.1.2 Spectrum Type

7.1.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.1.4 Deployment Summary

7.2 Adif AV (Alta Velocidad): Private 5G Infrastructure for Wireless Access in Strategic Logistics Terminals

7.2.1 Operational Model

7.2.2 Spectrum Type

7.2.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.2.4 Deployment Summary

7.3 Agnico Eagle Mines: Streamlining Mining Operations With Industrial-Grade Private 5G Networks

7.3.1 Operational Model

7.3.2 Spectrum Type

7.3.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.3.4 Deployment Summary

7.4 Airbus: Multi-Campus Private Cellular Network for Aircraft Manufacturing Facilities Across Europe

7.4.1 Operational Model

7.4.2 Spectrum Type

7.4.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.4.4 Deployment Summary

7.5 ANA (All Nippon Airways): Local 5G-Powered Digital Transformation of Aviation Training

7.5.1 Operational Model

7.5.2 Spectrum Type

7.5.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.5.4 Deployment Summary

7.6 ArcelorMittal: 5G Steel Project for Industrial Digitization & Automation

7.6.1 Operational Model

7.6.2 Spectrum Type

7.6.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.6.4 Deployment Summary

7.7 ASE Group: 28 GHz mmWave 5G Network for Semiconductor Manufacturing

7.7.1 Operational Model

7.7.2 Spectrum Type

7.7.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.7.4 Deployment Summary

7.8 ASN (Alcatel Submarine Networks): Private 5G Networks for Calais & Greenwich Production Sites

7.8.1 Operational Model

7.8.2 Spectrum Type

7.8.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.8.4 Deployment Summary

7.9 BAM Nuttall: Accelerating Innovation at Construction Sites With Private 5G Networks

7.9.1 Operational Model

7.9.2 Spectrum Type

7.9.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.9.4 Deployment Summary

7.10 Barcelona Port Authority: Standalone Private 5G Network for 500 Tenant Companies

7.10.1 Operational Model

7.10.2 Spectrum Type

7.10.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.10.4 Deployment Summary

7.11 BASF: 5G Campus Networks for Real-Time Wireless Connectivity in Chemical Production Sites

7.11.1 Operational Model

7.11.2 Spectrum Type

7.11.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.11.4 Deployment Summary

7.12 BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation): Portable 5G-Based NPN Solution for News Contribution

7.12.1 Operational Model

7.12.2 Spectrum Type

7.12.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.12.4 Deployment Summary

7.13 BHP: Transitioning From Private LTE to Standalone 5G Networks for Advanced Digitization & Automation

7.13.1 Operational Model

7.13.2 Spectrum Type

7.13.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.13.4 Deployment Summary

7.14 BlackRock: On-Premise Private 5G Network Installation for New York Global Headquarters

7.14.1 Operational Model

7.14.2 Spectrum Type

7.14.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.14.4 Deployment Summary

7.15 BMW Group: Private 5G Networks for Autonomous Intralogistics in Production Plants

7.15.1 Operational Model

7.15.2 Spectrum Type

7.15.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.15.4 Deployment Summary

7.16 Boston Children's Hospital: Scalable Hybrid Public-Private 5G Network for Connected Healthcare

7.16.1 Operational Model

7.16.2 Spectrum Type

7.16.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.16.4 Deployment Summary

7.17 BT Media & Broadcast: Private 5G Networks for Live Sports Content Production

7.17.1 Operational Model

7.17.2 Spectrum Type

7.17.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.17.4 Deployment Summary

7.18 Cal Poly (California Polytechnic State University): Converged Public-Private 5G Network

7.18.1 Operational Model

7.18.2 Spectrum Type

7.18.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.18.4 Deployment Summary

7.19 China National Coal Group: Multi-Band 700 MHz & 2.6 GHz Private 5G Network for Dahaize Coal Mine

7.19.1 Operational Model

7.19.2 Spectrum Type

7.19.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.19.4 Deployment Summary

7.20 CJ Logistics: Bolstering Fulfillment Center Productivity Using Private 5G Network

7.20.1 Operational Model

7.20.2 Spectrum Type

7.20.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.20.4 Deployment Summary

7.21 Cleveland Clinic: Private 5G Network for Mentor Hospital

7.21.1 Operational Model

7.21.2 Spectrum Type

7.21.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.21.4 Deployment Summary

7.22 Cologne Bonn Airport: Revolutionizing Internal Operations With Private 5G Campus Network

7.22.1 Operational Model

7.22.2 Spectrum Type

7.22.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.22.4 Deployment Summary

7.23 COMAC (Commercial Aircraft Corporation of China): 5G-Connected Intelligent Aircraft Manufacturing Factories

7.23.1 Operational Model

7.23.2 Spectrum Type

7.23.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.23.4 Deployment Summary

7.24 CSG (China Southern Power Grid): Harnessing Private Cellular Systems & 5G Network Slicing for Smart Grid Operations

7.24.1 Operational Model

7.24.2 Spectrum Type

7.24.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.24.4 Deployment Summary

7.25 DB (Deutsche Bahn): Digitizing & Automating Rail Operations With 5G-Based FRMCS

7.25.1 Operational Model

7.25.2 Spectrum Type

7.25.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.25.4 Deployment Summary

7.26 Delta Electronics: Private 5G Networks for Manufacturing Facilities in Taiwan & Thailand

7.26.1 Operational Model

7.26.2 Spectrum Type

7.26.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.26.4 Deployment Summary

7.27 District of Ban Chang: 26 GHz mmWave Private 5G Network for Smart City Services

7.27.1 Operational Model

7.27.2 Spectrum Type

7.27.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.27.4 Deployment Summary

7.28 Dongyi Group Coal Gasification Company: Hybrid Public-Private Network for Xinyan Coal Mine

7.28.1 Operational Model

7.28.2 Spectrum Type

7.28.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.28.4 Deployment Summary

7.29 EHIME CATV: Gigabit-Grade FWA Service Using 28 GHz Local 5G Network

7.29.1 Operational Model

7.29.2 Spectrum Type

7.29.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.29.4 Deployment Summary

7.30 Estonian Ministry of Defense: Private 5G Network for CR14 (Cyber Range 14)

7.30.1 Operational Model

7.30.2 Spectrum Type

7.30.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.30.4 Deployment Summary

7.31 EUROGATE: 5G Campus Networks for the Digitization of Port Logistics

7.31.1 Operational Model

7.31.2 Spectrum Type

7.31.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.31.4 Deployment Summary

7.32 EWG (East-West Gate) Intermodal Terminal: Private 5G Network for Smart Railway Logistics

7.32.1 Operational Model

7.32.2 Spectrum Type

7.32.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.32.4 Deployment Summary

7.33 Ferrovial: Standalone Private 5G Network for Silvertown Tunnel Project

7.33.1 Operational Model

7.33.2 Spectrum Type

7.33.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.33.4 Deployment Summary

7.34 Fiskarheden: Local 3.7 GHz License-Based Private 5G Network for Transtrand Sawmill

7.34.1 Operational Model

7.34.2 Spectrum Type

7.34.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.34.4 Deployment Summary

7.35 Frankfurt University Hospital: Dedicated 5G Network for Secure Medical Messaging & Remote Diagnostics

7.35.1 Operational Model

7.35.2 Spectrum Type

7.35.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.35.4 Deployment Summary

7.36 Fraport: Private 5G Campus Network for Future-Oriented Operations at Frankfurt Airport

7.36.1 Operational Model

7.36.2 Spectrum Type

7.36.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.36.4 Deployment Summary

7.37 Fujitsu: Japan's First 5G Network Installation Based on 28 GHz Local 5G Spectrum

7.37.1 Operational Model

7.37.2 Spectrum Type

7.37.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.37.4 Deployment Summary

7.38 Gerdau: Private 5G Network for Ouro Branco Steel Production Plant

7.38.1 Operational Model

7.38.2 Spectrum Type

7.38.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.38.4 Deployment Summary

7.39 Gogo Business Aviation: 5G A2G Wireless Network for Inflight Connectivity

7.39.1 Operational Model

7.39.2 Spectrum Type

7.39.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.39.4 Deployment Summary

7.40 Guangzhou Metro: 5G + Smart Metro Project for Urban Rail Transit

7.40.1 Operational Model

7.40.2 Spectrum Type

7.40.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.40.4 Deployment Summary

7.41 Hanshin Electric Railway: Capitalizing on Local 5G for Safer & Efficient Railway Operations

7.41.1 Operational Model

7.41.2 Spectrum Type

7.41.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.41.4 Deployment Summary

7.42 Helios Park Hospital: Enhancing Medical System Efficiency With Standalone 5G Campus Network

7.42.1 Operational Model

7.42.2 Spectrum Type

7.42.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.42.4 Deployment Summary

7.43 Hip Hing Engineering: Dedicated 5G Network for Kai Tak Sports Park

7.43.1 Operational Model

7.43.2 Spectrum Type

7.43.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.43.4 Deployment Summary

7.44 Hiroshima Gas: Local 5G-Powered Safety Operations at Hatsukaichi LNG Terminal

7.44.1 Operational Model

7.44.2 Spectrum Type

7.44.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.44.4 Deployment Summary

7.45 HKIA (Hong Kong International Airport): 28 GHz Public-Private 5G Infrastructure Project

7.45.1 Operational Model

7.45.2 Spectrum Type

7.45.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.45.4 Deployment Summary

7.46 Hoban Construction: 4.7 GHz Private 5G Network for Apartment Complex Worksite

7.46.1 Operational Model

7.46.2 Spectrum Type

7.46.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.46.4 Deployment Summary

7.47 Hsinchu City Fire Department: Satellite-Backhauled Private 5G Network for PPDR Communications

7.47.1 Operational Model

7.47.2 Spectrum Type

7.47.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.47.4 Deployment Summary

7.48 Hutchison Ports: Driving the Digitization & Automation of Ports Through Private 5G Networks

7.48.1 Operational Model

7.48.2 Spectrum Type

7.48.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.48.4 Deployment Summary

7.49 Inventec Corporation: Standalone Private 5G Network for Taoyuan Guishan Plant

7.49.1 Operational Model

7.49.2 Spectrum Type

7.49.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.49.4 Deployment Summary

7.50 IRFU (Irish Rugby Football Union): Enabling Fast In-Play Data Analysis With Private 5G Network

7.50.1 Operational Model

7.50.2 Spectrum Type

7.50.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.50.4 Deployment Summary

7.51 Jacto: Private 5G Network for Paulópolis Agricultural Machinery Manufacturing Plant

7.51.1 Operational Model

7.51.2 Spectrum Type

7.51.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.51.4 Deployment Summary

7.52 JBG SMITH Properties: National Landing Private 5G Infrastructure Platform

7.52.1 Operational Model

7.52.2 Spectrum Type

7.52.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.52.4 Deployment Summary

7.53 JD Logistics: Migrating AGV Communications From Wi-Fi to Private 5G Networks

7.53.1 Operational Model

7.53.2 Spectrum Type

7.53.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.53.4 Deployment Summary

7.54 John Deere: Employing Private 5G Networks to Unshackle Industrial Facilities From Cables

7.54.1 Operational Model

7.54.2 Spectrum Type

7.54.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.54.4 Deployment Summary

7.55 Kansai Electric Power: Enhancing Power Station & Wind Farm Maintenance Using Local 5G Networks

7.55.1 Operational Model

7.55.2 Spectrum Type

7.55.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.55.4 Deployment Summary

7.56 Kaohsiung City Police Department: Sliced Private 5G Network for Smart Patrol Cars

7.56.1 Operational Model

7.56.2 Spectrum Type

7.56.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.56.4 Deployment Summary

7.57 Kawasaki Heavy Industries: Connecting Smart Factory Robotics With Local 5G Technology

7.57.1 Operational Model

7.57.2 Spectrum Type

7.57.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.57.4 Deployment Summary

7.58 KEPCO (Korea Electric Power Corporation): Private 5G Networks for Substation Management

7.58.1 Operational Model

7.58.2 Spectrum Type

7.58.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.58.4 Deployment Summary

7.59 Kumagai Gumi: Unleashing the Potential of Unmanned Construction Using Local 5G Networks

7.59.1 Operational Model

7.59.2 Spectrum Type

7.59.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.59.4 Deployment Summary

7.60 Latvian Ministry of Defense: Camp Ādaži 5G Testbed for Defense Innovations

7.60.1 Operational Model

7.60.2 Spectrum Type

7.60.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.60.4 Deployment Summary

7.61 Lishui Municipal Emergency Management: 5G-Enabled Natural Disaster Management System

7.61.1 Operational Model

7.61.2 Spectrum Type

7.61.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.61.4 Deployment Summary

7.62 Liverpool 5G Create Project: Standalone Private 5G Network for Digital Health, Education & Social Care

7.62.1 Operational Model

7.62.2 Spectrum Type

7.62.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.62.4 Deployment Summary

7.63 Lufthansa Technik: Industrial-Grade 5G Campus Network for Hamburg Engine Shops

7.63.1 Operational Model

7.63.2 Spectrum Type

7.63.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.63.4 Deployment Summary

7.64 Mercedes-Benz Group: World's First 5G Campus Network for Automotive Production

7.64.1 Operational Model

7.64.2 Spectrum Type

7.64.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.64.4 Deployment Summary

7.65 Midea Group: 5G-Connected Factories for Washing Machine Manufacturing

7.65.1 Operational Model

7.65.2 Spectrum Type

7.65.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.65.4 Deployment Summary

7.66 Mitsubishi Electric: Local 5G-Based Industrial Wireless System for Factory Automation

7.66.1 Operational Model

7.66.2 Spectrum Type

7.66.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.66.4 Deployment Summary

7.67 Narita International Airport: Local 5G Network for Self-Driving Shuttle Buses & Critical Communications

7.67.1 Operational Model

7.67.2 Spectrum Type

7.67.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.67.4 Deployment Summary

7.68 Navantia: Digital Transformation of Shipyard Operations Using Dedicated 5G Infrastructure & Edge Computing

7.68.1 Operational Model

7.68.2 Spectrum Type

7.68.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.68.4 Deployment Summary

7.69 NEC Corporation: Improving Production Efficiency With Local 5G-Connected Autonomous Transport System

7.69.1 Operational Model

7.69.2 Spectrum Type

7.69.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.69.4 Deployment Summary

7.70 NLMK Group: Digitizing Steel Production & Mining Operations With Private Wireless Networks

7.70.1 Operational Model

7.70.2 Spectrum Type

7.70.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.70.4 Deployment Summary

7.71 Norwegian Armed Forces: Defense-Specific Network Slices & Tactical Private 5G Systems

7.71.1 Operational Model

7.71.2 Spectrum Type

7.71.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.71.4 Deployment Summary

7.72 PCK Raffinerie: Accelerating Oil Refinery Digitization With 5G Campus Network

7.72.1 Operational Model

7.72.2 Spectrum Type

7.72.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.72.4 Deployment Summary

7.73 Port of Tyne: Advancing Smart Port Transformation With Private 5G Network

7.73.1 Operational Model

7.73.2 Spectrum Type

7.73.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.73.4 Deployment Summary

7.74 POSCO: Leveraging Private 5G to Link Autonomous Locomotives & Railway Control Systems

7.74.1 Operational Model

7.74.2 Spectrum Type

7.74.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.74.4 Deployment Summary

7.75 PSA International: Private 5G Networks for Container Terminal Operations

7.75.1 Operational Model

7.75.2 Spectrum Type

7.75.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.75.4 Deployment Summary

7.76 Ricoh: Embracing Digital Innovation in Production Operations With Local 5G Networks

7.76.1 Operational Model

7.76.2 Spectrum Type

7.76.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.76.4 Deployment Summary

7.77 Robert Bosch: Automating & Digitizing Manufacturing Facilities With Private 5G Networks

7.77.1 Operational Model

7.77.2 Spectrum Type

7.77.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.77.4 Deployment Summary

7.78 ROKN (Republic of Korea Navy): Secure Private 5G Network for Second Fleet Operations

7.78.1 Operational Model

7.78.2 Spectrum Type

7.78.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.78.4 Deployment Summary

7.79 Ryder Cup Golf Competition: Integrated Private 5G/Wi-Fi Network for Fans & Staff

7.79.1 Operational Model

7.79.2 Spectrum Type

7.79.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.79.4 Deployment Summary

7.80 São Martinho: Pioneering Smart Agribusiness Innovations With Private 5G Networks

7.80.1 Operational Model

7.80.2 Spectrum Type

7.80.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.80.4 Deployment Summary

7.81 SCA (Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget): Local 5G Connectivity for Timber Terminals & Paper Mills

7.81.1 Operational Model

7.81.2 Spectrum Type

7.81.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.81.4 Deployment Summary

7.82 SGCC (State Grid Corporation of China): Sliced Public-Private 5G & 5.8 GHz Private NR-U Networks

7.82.1 Operational Model

7.82.2 Spectrum Type

7.82.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.82.4 Deployment Summary

7.83 Siemens: Independently Developed Private 5G Infrastructure for Industry 4.0 Applications

7.83.1 Operational Model

7.83.2 Spectrum Type

7.83.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.83.4 Deployment Summary

7.84 Sinopec (China Petroleum & Chemical Corporation): 5G + Smart Petrochemical Project

7.84.1 Operational Model

7.84.2 Spectrum Type

7.84.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.84.4 Deployment Summary

7.85 SMC (Samsung Medical Center): On-Premise Private 5G Network for Medical Education

7.85.1 Operational Model

7.85.2 Spectrum Type

7.85.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.85.4 Deployment Summary

7.86 Snam: Hybrid 5G MPN (Mobile Private Network) for 23 Plants

7.86.1 Operational Model

7.86.2 Spectrum Type

7.86.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.86.4 Deployment Summary

7.87 SNCF (French National Railways): Enabling Rail Innovations With 5G Technology

7.87.1 Operational Model

7.87.2 Spectrum Type

7.87.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.87.4 Deployment Summary

7.88 Swedish Armed Forces: Tactical 5G Bubbles for Secure Military Communications

7.88.1 Operational Model

7.88.2 Spectrum Type

7.88.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.88.4 Deployment Summary

7.89 TBN (Trinity Broadcasting Network): Private 5G Network for Broadcast Studio

7.89.1 Operational Model

7.89.2 Spectrum Type

7.89.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.89.4 Deployment Summary

7.90 Tianjin Port Group: On-Premise 5G Infrastructure for Intelligent & Automated Port Operations

7.90.1 Operational Model

7.90.2 Spectrum Type

7.90.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.90.4 Deployment Summary

7.91 Tokyo Metropolitan University: L5G (Local 5G) Project in Support of "Future Tokyo" Strategy

7.91.1 Operational Model

7.91.2 Spectrum Type

7.91.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.91.4 Deployment Summary

7.92 U.S. DOD (Department of Defense): Expanding 5G-Enabled Communications & Warfighting Capabilities

7.92.1 Operational Model

7.92.2 Spectrum Type

7.92.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.92.4 Deployment Summary

7.93 UKD (University Hospital of Düsseldorf): Improving Patient Care & Saving Lives With 5G Campus Network

7.93.1 Operational Model

7.93.2 Spectrum Type

7.93.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.93.4 Deployment Summary

7.94 Ushino Nakayama: Transforming Kagoshima Wagyu Beef Production With Local 5G Connectivity

7.94.1 Operational Model

7.94.2 Spectrum Type

7.94.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.94.4 Deployment Summary

7.95 VA Palo Alto Health Care System: Campus-Wide Private 5G Network for Clinical Care Applications

7.95.1 Operational Model

7.95.2 Spectrum Type

7.95.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.95.4 Deployment Summary

7.96 Volkswagen Group: Private 5G for Smart Manufacturing & Intelligent Vehicle Development

7.96.1 Operational Model

7.96.2 Spectrum Type

7.96.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.96.4 Deployment Summary

7.97 VPA (Virginia Port Authority): Private 5G Connectivity for Semi-Automated Container Terminals

7.97.1 Operational Model

7.97.2 Spectrum Type

7.97.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.97.4 Deployment Summary

7.98 West China Second University Hospital (Sichuan University): Enabling Smart Healthcare With Private 5G Network

7.98.1 Operational Model

7.98.2 Spectrum Type

7.98.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.98.4 Deployment Summary

7.99 WISCO (Wuhan Iron & Steel Corporation): Dual-Layer 2.1 GHz & 3.5 GHz Private 5G Network for Steel Plant

7.99.1 Operational Model

7.99.2 Spectrum Type

7.99.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.99.4 Deployment Summary

7.100 X Shore: Empowering Electric Boat Manufacturing With Private 5G Network

7.100.1 Operational Model

7.100.2 Spectrum Type

7.100.3 Integrators & Suppliers

7.100.4 Deployment Summary

8 Chapter 8: Key Ecosystem Players

8.1 10T Tech

8.2 1NCE

8.3 1oT

8.4 2TEST (Alkor-Communication)

8.5 3D-P (Epiroc)

8.6 450connect

8.7 4K Solutions

8.8 4RF

8.9 6Harmonics/6WiLInk

8.10 6WIND

8.11 7P (Seven Principles)

8.12 A Beep/Diga-Talk+

8.13 A1 Telekom Austria Group

8.14 A10 Networks

8.15 A5G Networks

8.16 AAEON Technology (ASUS – ASUSTeK Computer)

8.17 Aarna Networks

8.18 ABB

8.19 ABEL Mobilfunk

8.20 ABiT Corporation

8.21 ABS

8.22 Abside Networks

8.23 Accedian

8.24 AccelerComm

8.25 Accelink Technologies

8.26 Accelleran

8.27 Accenture

8.28 Access Spectrum

8.29 Accton Technology Corporation

8.30 Accuver (InnoWireless)

8.31 ACE Technologies

8.32 AceTel (Ace Solutions)

8.33 Achronix Semiconductor Corporation

8.34 ACOME

8.35 Actelis Networks

8.36 Action Technologies (Shenzhen Action Technologies)

8.37 Actiontec Electronics

8.38 Active911

8.39 Actus Networks

8.40 Adax

8.41 Adcor Magnet Systems

8.42 ADI (Analog Devices, Inc.)

8.43 ADLINK Technology

8.44 ADRF (Advanced RF Technologies)

8.45 ADT

8.46 Adtran

8.47 Advanced Energy Industries

8.48 AdvanceTec Industries

8.49 Advantech

8.50 Advantech Wireless Technologies (Baylin Technologies)

8.51 Aegex Technologies

8.52 Aerial Applications

8.53 Aeris

8.54 Aerostar International

8.55 Aethertek

8.56 Affarii Technologies

8.57 Affirmed Networks (Microsoft Corporation)

8.58 AFL Global

8.59 AFRY

8.60 Agile (Agile Interoperable Solutions)

8.61 AGIS (Advanced Ground Information Systems)

8.62 AGM Mobile

8.63 AH NET (MVM NET)

8.64 AI-LINK

8.65 AINA Wireless

8.66 Airbus/SLC (Secure Land Communications)

8.67 Airfide Networks

8.68 Airgain

8.69 AirHop Communications

8.70 Airlinq

8.71 Airspan Networks

8.72 Airtower Networks

8.73 Airwavz Solutions

8.74 AIS (Advanced Info Service)

8.75 AiVader

8.76 Akamai Technologies

8.77 Akoustis Technologies

8.78 Alaxala Networks Corporation (Fortinet)

8.79 ALBEDO Telecom

8.80 albis-elcon (UET – United Electronic Technology)

8.81 Alcadis

8.82 Alea (Leonardo)

8.83 Alef (Alef Edge)

8.84 Alepo

8.85 Alibaba Group

8.86 Aliniant

8.87 Allbesmart

8.88 Allen Vanguard Wireless

8.89 Allerio

8.90 Allied Telesis

8.91 Allot

8.92 Alpha Networks

8.93 Alpha Wireless

8.94 Alsatis Réseaux

8.95 Alstom

8.96 Altaeros

8.97 Altair Semiconductor (Sony Semiconductor Israel)

8.98 ALTÁN Redes

8.99 Altice Group

8.100 ALVIS (Argentina)

8.101 AM Telecom

8.102 Amantya Technologies

8.103 Amarisoft

8.104 Amazon/AWS (Amazon Web Services)

8.105 Ambra Solutions-ECOTEL

8.106 AMD (Advanced Micro Devices)

8.107 Amdocs

8.108 América Móvil

8.109 American Tower Corporation

8.110 AMI (American Megatrends International)

8.111 AMIT Wireless

8.112 Ampere Computing

8.113 Amphenol Corporation

8.114 Ampleon

8.115 Amtele Communication

8.116 Andesat

8.117 ANDRO Computational Solutions

8.118 Anktion (Fujian) Technology

8.119 Anokiwave

8.120 Anritsu

8.121 ANS – Advanced Network Services (Charge Enterprises)

8.122 Antenna Company

8.123 Anterix

8.124 Antevia Networks

8.125 Antna Antenna Technology

8.126 Aorotech

8.127 Apple

8.128 APRESIA Systems

8.129 APSTAR (APT Satellite Company)

8.130 APT (Asia Pacific Telecom)

8.131 aql

8.132 Aquila (Suzhou Aquila Solutions)

8.133 Aqura Technologies (Telstra Purple)

8.134 Arabsat

8.135 Arcadyan Technology Corporation (Compal Electronics)

8.136 Archos

8.137 Arctic Semiconductor (Formerly SiTune Corporation)

8.138 Arete M

8.139 Argela

8.140 ArgoNET

8.141 Aria Networks

8.142 Arista Networks

8.143 Arkessa (Wireless Logic Group)

8.144 Arm

8.145 Armour Communications

8.146 Arqit Quantum

8.147 ArrayComm (Chengdu ArrayComm Wireless Technologies)

8.148 Arrcus

8.149 Artemis Networks

8.150 Artiza Networks

8.151 Aruba (HPE – Hewlett Packard Enterprise)

8.152 Arukona

8.153 Asavie

8.154 ASELSAN

8.155 AsiaInfo Technologies

8.156 AsiaSat (Asia Satellite Telecommunications Company)

8.157 Askey Computer Corporation (ASUS – ASUSTeK Computer)

8.158 ASOCS

8.159 Aspire Technology (NEC Corporation)

8.160 ASR Microelectronics

8.161 AST SpaceMobile

8.162 ASTELLA (Astella Technologies)

8.163 ASTRI (Hong Kong Applied Science and Technology Research Institute)

8.164 ASUS (ASUSTeK Computer)

8.165 Asylon

8.166 AT&T

8.167 Ataya

8.168 ATDI

8.169 ATEL (Asiatelco Technologies)

8.170 Atel Antennas

8.171 Atesio

8.172 Athonet (HPE – Hewlett Packard Enterprise)

8.173 ATL – A Test Lab (Eurofins E&E – Electrical and Electronics)

8.174 Atlas Telecom

8.175 AtlasEdge (Liberty Global/DigitalBridge Group)

8.176 ATN International

8.177 Atos

8.178 Atrinet

8.179 Attabotics

8.180 AttoCore

8.181 Auden Techno

8.182 Auray Technology (Auden Techno)

8.183 Avanti Communications

8.184 Avari Wireless

8.185 AVI

8.186 Aviat Networks

8.187 Avidyne Corporation

8.188 AVIWEST (Haivision)

8.189 AVM

8.190 AW2S – Advanced Wireless Solutions and Services (SERMA Group)

8.191 AWTG

8.192 AXESS Networks (HISPASAT)

8.193 Axians (VINCI Energies)

8.194 Axiata Group

8.195 Axione

8.196 Axis Communications

8.197 Axon

8.198 Axtel

8.199 Axxcelera Broadband Wireless (Axxcss Wireless Solutions)

8.200 Axxcss Wireless Solutions

8.201 Azcom Technology

8.202 Azetti Networks

8.203 B+B SmartWorx (Advantech)

8.204 BAE Systems

8.205 Baicells

8.206 Ball Aerospace

8.207 Ballast Networks

8.208 BandRich

8.209 BandwidthX

8.210 Barrett Communications (Motorola Solutions)

8.211 BATS Wireless (Broadband Antenna Tracking Systems)

8.212 BAYFU (Bayerische Funknetz)

8.213 Baylin Technologies

8.214 BBB (BB Backbone Corporation)

8.215 BBK Electronics

8.216 BCDVideo

8.217 Beam Semiconductor

8.218 Beamlink

8.219 BearCom

8.220 BEC Technologies (Billion Electric)

8.221 becon

8.222 Beeper Communications

8.223 Beijer Electronics Group

8.224 Belden

8.225 BelFone

8.226 Bell Canada

8.227 Bellantenna

8.228 Benetel

8.229 BesoVideo

8.230 Betacom

8.231 Bharti Airtel

8.232 BHE (Bonn Hungary Electronics)

8.233 BICS (Proximus)

8.234 BinnenBereik (NOVEC)

8.235 Bird Technologies

8.236 BISDN (Berlin Institute for Software Defined Networks)

8.237 Bittium

8.238 BK Technologies

8.239 Black & Veatch

8.240 Black Box

8.241 BlackBerry

8.242 Blackned

8.243 BLiNQ Networks (CCI – Communication Components Inc.)

8.244 Blu Wireless

8.245 Blue Arcus Technologies

8.246 Blue Wireless

8.247 Bluebird

8.248 Blueforce Development Corporation

8.249 BLUnet Schweiz (Axpo WZ-Systems)

8.250 Boeing/Aurora Flight Sciences

8.251 Boelink (Shanghai Boelink Communication Technology)

8.252 Boingo Wireless (DigitalBridge Group)

8.253 Boldyn Networks (Formerly BAI Communications)

8.254 Bombardier

8.255 Booz Allen Hamilton

8.256 Boston Dynamics

8.257 Bouygues Telecom

8.258 Boxchip

8.259 Branch Communications

8.260 BravoCom

8.261 Bredengen

8.262 Broadcom

8.263 BroadForward

8.264 Broadmobi – Shanghai Broadmobi Communication Technology (Wutong Group)

8.265 Broadpeak

8.266 Broadtech

8.267 BSNL (Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited)

8.268 BT Group

8.269 BTI Wireless

8.270 BubbleRAN

8.271 Bullitt Mobile

8.272 Bumicom Telecommunicatie

8.273 Bureau Veritas/7Layers

8.274 BVSystems (Berkeley Varitronics Systems)

8.275 BWT (BlueWaveTel)

8.276 BYD

8.277 B-Yond

8.278 C Spire

8.279 C Squared Systems

8.280 C3Spectra

8.281 CableFree (Wireless Excellence)

8.282 CableLabs

8.283 CACI International/LGS Innovations

8.284 Cadence Design Systems

8.285 CalAmp

8.286 CalChip Connect

8.287 Caliber Public Safety

8.288 Calix

8.289 Calnex Solutions

8.290 Caltta Technologies

8.291 Cambium Networks

8.292 Cambridge Consultants (Capgemini Invent)

8.293 CampusGenius

8.294 Canoga Perkins

8.295 Canonical

8.296 Capgemini Engineering

8.297 CapX Nederland

8.298 Carbyne

8.299 Casa Systems (Axyom & NetComm Portfolio)

8.300 CASIC (China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation)

8.301 Casio Computer Company

8.302 Castor Marine

8.303 Catalyst Communications Technologies

8.304 Cavli Wireless

8.305 CBNG (Cambridge Broadband Networks Group)

8.306 CCI (Communication Components Inc.)

8.307 CCN (Cirrus Core Networks)

8.308 CCww (Communications Consultants Worldwide)

8.309 Cegeka

8.310 CeLa Link Corporation

8.311 Celfinet (Cyient)

8.312 CellAntenna Corporation

8.313 Cellcomm Solutions

8.314 Cellient

8.315 Celling 5G

8.316 CellMax Technologies (Rosenberger)

8.317 Cellnex Telecom

8.318 Cellwize (Qualcomm)

8.319 cellXica

8.320 cellXion

8.321 Celona

8.322 CelPlan Technologies

8.323 Centerline Communications

8.324 CENTRA Technology

8.325 CentralSquare Technologies

8.326 Ceragon Networks

8.327 Cerillion

8.328 CertusNet

8.329 CETC (China Electronics Technology Group Corporation)

8.330 CETIN Group

8.331 CEVA

8.332 CGI

8.333 Challenge Networks (Vocus)

8.334 Charter Communications

8.335 Cheerzing (Xiamen Cheerzing IoT Technology)

8.336 Chelton

8.337 Chemring Technology Solutions

8.338 Chengdu NTS

8.339 China All Access

8.340 China Mobile

8.341 China Satcom (China Satellite Communications)

8.342 China Telecom

8.343 China Unicom

8.344 Chunghwa Telecom

8.345 Cibicom

8.346 CICT – China Information and Communication Technology Group (China Xinke Group)

8.347 Ciena Corporation

8.348 CIG (Cambridge Industries Group)

8.349 CIO (Connected IO)

8.350 Cirpack

8.351 Cisco Systems

8.352 Citymesh (Cegeka/DIGI Communications)

8.353 CitySwitch

8.354 CKH IOD (CK Hutchison)

8.355 Clavister

8.356 Clever Logic

8.357 CloudMinds

8.358 CMIoT (China Mobile IoT)

8.359 Cobham

8.360 COCUS

8.361 Codan Communications

8.362 Codium Networks

8.363 Cogisys

8.364 Cognizant

8.365 Cohere Technologies

8.366 Coherent (Formerly II-VI)

8.367 Coherent Logix

8.368 Coiler Corporation

8.369 Collinear Networks (EOS – Electro Optic Systems)

8.370 Collins Aerospace (RTX Corporation)

8.371 Colt Technology Services

8.372 Com4 (Wireless Logic Group)

8.373 Comander (ANDRA)

8.374 Comarch

8.375 Comba Telecom

8.376 Combain Mobile

8.377 Comcast Corporation

8.378 Comcores

8.379 Comfone

8.380 COMLAB

8.381 CommAgility (E-Space)

8.382 CommandWear Systems

8.383 Commnet Wireless (ATN International)

8.384 Comms365

8.385 CommScope

8.386 Compal Electronics

8.387 Comprod

8.388 Comptek Technologies (Aero Wireless Group)

8.389 Comrod Communication Group

8.390 COMSovereign

8.391 Comtech Telecommunications Corporation

8.392 Comtest Wireless

8.393 Comtrend Corporation

8.394 Comviva (Tech Mahindra)

8.395 CONET Technologies

8.396 CONEXIO Corporation

8.397 CONGIV (ROBUR Industry Service Group)

8.398 Connect Tech

8.399 Connect44 Group

8.400 Connectivity Wireless Solutions (M/C Partners)

8.401 Consort Digital

8.402 Contela

8.403 Coolpad

8.404 CopaSAT

8.405 coreNOC

8.406 Cornerstone (CTIL)

8.407 Cornet Technology

8.408 Corning

8.409 Cortina Access

8.410 Cosemi Technologies

8.411 COSMOTE (OTE Group)

8.412 Council Rock

8.413 Coweaver

8.414 Cox Communications

8.415 Cradlepoint (Ericsson)

8.416 Creanord

8.417 CrisisGo

8.418 CROSSCALL

8.419 Crown Castle International Corporation

8.420 CRSC (China Railway Signal & Communication Corporation)/CASCO Signal

8.421 CS Corporation

8.422 CSG Systems International

8.423 CTG (Celestia Technologies Group)

8.424 CTL

8.425 CTS (Communication Technology Services)

8.426 CTS Corporation

8.427 Cubic Corporation

8.428 Cubic Telecom

8.429 Cumucore

8.430 Custom MMIC

8.431 CybertelBridge

8.432 Cyient

8.433 Cyrus Technology

8.434 D2 Technologies

8.435 DAEL Group

8.436 Daeyoun System Company

8.437 Dahua Technology

8.438 Dali Wireless

8.439 DAMM Cellular Systems

8.440 DATACOM

8.441 DataSoft

8.442 DBcom

8.443 dbSpectra

8.444 DeepSig

8.445 Dejero Labs

8.446 DEKRA

8.447 Dell Technologies

8.448 Delta Electronics

8.449 DENGYO (Nihon Dengyo Kosaku)

8.450 Dense Air (SIP – Sidewalk Infrastructure Partners)

8.451 Deutsche Funkturm

8.452 DGS (Digital Global Systems)

8.453 Dialogic

8.454 Diamond Communications

8.455 Digi International

8.456 Digicert

8.457 Digis Squared

8.458 Digita (DigitalBridge Group)

8.459 Digital Ally

8.460 Digital Enhancement

8.461 DigitalBridge Group

8.462 DigitalRoute

8.463 Digitata

8.464 DigitGate (Nanjing DigitGate Communication Technology)

8.465 Dimetor

8.466 DISH Network Corporation

8.467 DKK (Denki Kogyo)

8.468 D-Link Corporation

8.469 DMI

8.470 Doodle Labs

8.471 Doogee

8.472 Doosan Corporation

8.473 DragonWave-X (COMSovereign)

8.474 Drakontas

8.475 DriveNets

8.476 Drone Aviation (COMSovereign)

8.477 DroneSense

8.478 Druid Software

8.479 DSBJ (Suzhou Dongshan Precision Manufacturing)

8.480 DT (Deutsche Telekom)

8.481 DTAC (Total Access Communication)

8.482 du (EITC – Emirates Integrated Telecommunications Company)

8.483 Duons

8.484 Durabook (Twinhead International Corporation)

8.485 Duubee

8.486 DZS

8.487 Eahison Communication

8.488 EANTC

8.489 Eastcom (Eastern Communications)

8.490 Easycom (Shenzhen Easycom Electronics)

8.491 E-Band Communications (Axxcss Wireless Solutions)

8.492 e-BO Enterprises

8.493 ECE (European Communications Engineering)

8.494 EchoStar Corporation

8.495 Ecom Instruments (Pepperl+Fuchs)

8.496 Ecrio

8.497 Edgecore Networks (Accton Technology Corporation)

8.498 EdgeQ

8.499 Edgybees

8.500 edotco Group (Axiata Group)

8.501 EDX Wireless

8.502 Effnet

8.503 Eigencomm

8.504 eino

8.505 EION Wireless

8.506 Eir (Eircom)

8.507 Ekinops

8.508 Elbit Systems

8.509 Elefante Group

8.510 Element Materials Technology

8.511 E-Lins Technology

8.512 Elisa

8.513 Elisa Polystar

8.514 Elistair

8.515 Elsight

8.516 Elta Systems (IAI – Israel Aerospace Industries)

8.517 Eltex

8.518 ELUON Corporation

8.519 ELVA-1

8.520 Emblasoft

8.521 Embraer

8.522 Embratel

8.523 Emerson

8.524 EMnify

8.525 EMS (Electronic Media Services)

8.526 Encore Networks

8.527 Endress+Hauser

8.528 Enea

8.529 ENENSYS Technologies

8.530 Energizer Mobile (Avenir Telecom)

8.531 EnerSys

8.532 Entel (United Kingdom)

8.533 Entropia

8.534 Entropy Solution

8.535 Eoptolink Technology

8.536 Epiroc

8.537 Equiendo

8.538 Eravant (SAGE Millimeter)

8.539 Ericsson

8.540 Errigal

8.541 ErvoCom

8.542 Eseye

8.543 Esharah Etisalat Security Solutions

8.544 E-Space

8.545 Estalky (K-Mobile Technology)

8.546 ETELM

8.547 eTera (Sinotech R&D Group)

8.548 Ethernity Networks

8.549 Etherstack

8.550 Etisalat Group (e&)

8.551 ETRI (Electronics & Telecommunications Research Institute, South Korea)

8.552 Etteplan

8.553 EUCAST

8.554 Eurofins E&E (Electrical and Electronics)

8.555 Eurotech

8.556 Eutelsat Group

8.557 Eventide Communications

8.558 Evolve Cellular

8.559 Exacom

8.560 Exaware

8.561 Excelerate Technology

8.562 EXFO

8.563 Exium

8.564 Expandium

8.565 Expeto

8.566 Extenet (DigitalBridge Group)

8.567 Extreme Networks

8.568 EY (Ernst & Young)

8.569 Eyecom Telecommunications Group

8.570 EZcon Network

8.571 F2G (Far-Together) Solutions

8.572 F5

8.573 Fairspectrum

8.574 Fairwaves

8.575 Faraday Technology Corporation

8.576 Fastback Networks (COMSovereign)

8.577 FCNT (Fujitsu Connected Technologies)-JEMS (Japan EM Solutions)

8.578 Federal Engineering

8.579 Federated Wireless

8.580 Fenix Group (Nokia)

8.581 Festo

8.582 FET (Far EasTone Telecommunications)

8.583 FIBERSTAMP

8.584 Fibocom

8.585 Fibrolan

8.586 Filtronic

8.587 Fingu (Wuhan Fingu Electronic Technology)

8.588 Fiplex Communications (Honeywell International)

8.589 Firecell

8.590 Fivecomm

8.591 Flash Networks

8.592 Flash Private Mobile Networks

8.593 Flectory

8.594 Fleet Complete

8.595 Flex

8.596 Flex Logix Technologies

8.597 Flightcell International

8.598 FLIR Systems

8.599 floLIVE

8.600 Flymotion

8.601 FMBE (FMB Engineering)

8.602 Forsk

8.603 Fortinet

8.604 Fortress Solutions

8.605 Four-Faith Communication Technology

8.606 Foxconn (Hon Hai Technology Group)

8.607 Franklin Wireless

8.608 Fraunhofer FOKUS (Institute for Open Communication Systems)

8.609 Fraunhofer HHI (Heinrich Hertz Institute)

8.610 Fraunhofer IIS (Institute for Integrated Circuits)

8.611 Fraunhofer IPT (Institute for Production Technology)

8.612 FreedomFi

8.613 Freeeway

8.614 Frequentis

8.615 Freshwave Group (DigitalBridge Group)

8.616 Frog Cellsat

8.617 FRTek

8.618 FSG (Field Solutions Group)

8.619 FTS – Formula Telecom Solutions (Magic Software Group)

8.620 Fujikura

8.621 Fujitsu

8.622 Funk-Electronic Piciorgros

8.623 Funkwerk

8.624 Furukawa Electric

8.625 Furuno Electric

8.626 Future Technologies Venture

8.627 G REIGNS (HTC Corporation)

8.628 G+D (Giesecke+Devrient)

8.629 G3 Global

8.630 Galtronics (Baylin Technologies)

8.631 Gamma Nu

8.632 Gapwaves

8.633 Garderos

8.634 Gazprom Space Systems

8.635 GCT Semiconductor

8.636 GD (General Devices)

8.637 GE (General Electric)

8.638 Gemtek Technology

8.639 General Dynamics

8.640 Genesis Group

8.641 GENEViSiO (QNAP Systems)

8.642 Genew Technologies

8.643 Genmix Technology

8.644 Geotab

8.645 GeoTraq

8.646 Getac Technology Corporation

8.647 Gewei (Wuhan Gewei Electronic Technology)

8.648 GF (GlobalFoundries)

8.649 GIGABYTE Technology

8.650 Gigalane

8.651 GIGALIGHT

8.652 Gigamon

8.653 GigaTera Communications (KMW)

8.654 GigSky

8.655 Gilat Satellite Networks

8.656 GL Communications

8.657 Global Telecom

8.658 Globalgig

8.659 Globalstar

8.660 Globe Telecom

8.661 Gogo Business Aviation

8.662 Goodman Telecom Services

8.663 Goodmill Systems

8.664 Google (Alphabet)

8.665 Goosetown Communications

8.666 Gore (W. L. Gore & Associates)

8.667 GosuncnWelink Technology (Gosuncn Group)

8.668 Granite Telecommunications

8.669 Grape One (Sumitomo Corporation)

8.670 Green Communications

8.671 Green Packet

8.672 Greenet (Netherlands)

8.673 GreenPalm (Hangzhou GreenPalm Technology)

8.674 GrenTech

8.675 GridGears

8.676 Groundhog Technologies

8.677 GroupTalk

8.678 GS Lab (Great Software Laboratory)

8.679 GSI (GS Instech)/GST (GS Teletech)

8.680 Guavus (Thales)

8.681 Guerrilla RF

8.682 GXC (Formerly GenXComm)

8.683 HAAS Alert

8.684 Haier

8.685 Haivision

8.686 Halys

8.687 Hancom MDS

8.688 Handheld Group

8.689 Handsfree Group

8.690 Hansen Technologies

8.691 Hanswell

8.692 Hanwha Techwin

8.693 HAPSMobile

8.694 Harbor Max

8.695 HARMAN DTS (Digital Transformation Solutions)

8.696 HARTING

8.697 Harvilon (Shenzhen Harvilon Technology)

8.698 Hawk Networks (Althea)

8.699 Haystax Technology (Fishtech Group/Cyderes)

8.700 HBFEC (Hebei Far East Communication System Engineering)

8.701 HCL Technologies

8.702 Helios (Fujian Helios Technologies)

8.703 Hengxin (Jiangsu Hengxin Technology)

8.704 Henkel

8.705 Herystorm (Guangzhou Herystorm Technology)

8.706 Hexagon

8.707 Hexagon Communication (Suzhou Hexagon Communication Technologies)

8.708 HFCL

8.709 HFR Networks

8.710 HG Genuine (HGTECH – Huagong Technology)

8.711 Highstreet Technologies

8.712 Hikvision (Hangzhou Hikvision Digital Technology)

8.713 Hilinks Technology

8.714 HipLink Software

8.715 Hisense

8.716 HiSilicon Technologies (Huawei)

8.717 HISPASAT

8.718 Hitachi

8.719 HKT (PCCW)

8.720 HKTech (Howking Tech)

8.721 HLS (HARD-LINE Solutions)

8.722 HMD Global

8.723 HMF Smart Solutions

8.724 HMS Networks

8.725 Hoimyung ICT

8.726 Hologram

8.727 Honeywell International

8.728 Hongdian Corporation

8.729 HONOR

8.730 Horizon Powered

8.731 Hoverfly Technologies

8.732 HP

8.733 HPE (Hewlett Packard Enterprise)

8.734 HQT (Shenzhen HQT Science and Technology)

8.735 HSC (Hughes Systique Corporation)

8.736 HTC Corporation

8.737 Huahuan (Beijing Huahuan Electronics)

8.738 Huaptec

8.739 Huawei

8.740 HUBER+SUHNER

8.741 HUCOM Wireless

8.742 Hughes Network Systems (EchoStar Corporation)

8.743 HXI (Renaissance Electronics & Communications)

8.744 Hypha (Wireless Innovation)

8.745 Hytec Inter

8.746 Hytera Communications

8.747 i.safe MOBILE

8.748 i2i Systems

8.749 iBASIS (Tofane Global)

8.750 IBM

8.751 IBO Technology Company

8.752 iBwave Solutions

8.753 iCana (Foxconn – Hon Hai Technology Group)

8.754 Ice Norway (Lyse)

8.755 Icom

8.756 Iconec

8.757 iConNext

8.758 iDAQS

8.759 IDEMIA

8.760 IDY Corporation

8.761 IFLY Electronics

8.762 ifm

8.763 IIJ (Internet Initiative Japan)

8.764 IM Technology

8.765 Imec

8.766 IMPTT

8.767 InCoax Networks

8.768 Indra

8.769 iNET (Infrastructure Networks)

8.770 INEX Microtechnology

8.771 Infineon Technologies

8.772 Infinera

8.773 InfiNet Wireless

8.774 InfiniG

8.775 Infinite Electronics

8.776 Infomark Corporation

8.777 Infosys

8.778 Infovista

8.779 InHand Networks

8.780 Inmanta

8.781 Inmarsat (Viasat)

8.782 Innertron

8.783 InnoGence Technology (TROY Information)

8.784 InnoLight Technology

8.785 Innonet

8.786 Innovile

8.787 InnoWireless

8.788 Inrico Technologies

8.789 Inseego Corporation

8.790 Inspur

8.791 Insta Group

8.792 Instant Connect

8.793 INSYS icom (INSYS Microelectronics)

8.794 Intec E&C

8.795 Intel Corporation

8.796 Intelbras

8.797 Intelliport Solutions

8.798 Intelsat

8.799 Intenna Systems

8.800 InterDigital

8.801 INTERLEV

8.802 Interop Technologies

8.803 InterTalk Critical Information Systems

8.804 Intracom Telecom

8.805 Intrado Corporation

8.806 Intrepid Networks

8.807 Inventec Corporation

8.808 INWIT (Infrastrutture Wireless Italiane)

8.809 IoT4Net

8.810 IoTAS (IoT & Approval Solutions)

8.811 IP Infusion (ACCESS CO.)

8.812 IPAGEON

8.813 IPITEK (Integrated Photonics Technology)

8.814 IPLOOK Technologies

8.815 iPosi

8.816 Iradio Electronics

8.817 Iridium Communications

8.818 Irteya (Russia)

8.819 ISCO International

8.820 IS-Wireless

8.821 Italtel

8.822 ITCEN

8.823 ITRI (Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan)

8.824 Itron

8.825 IWT (Innovative Wireless Technologies)

8.826 Jabil

8.827 JACS Solutions

8.828 JATONTEC (Jaton Technology)

8.829 JCI (Japan Communications Inc.)

8.830 JET Connectivity

8.831 Jezetek (Sichuan Jiuzhou Electric Group)

8.832 Jiaxun Feihong (Beijing Jiaxun Feihong Electrical)

8.833 Jinan USR IoT Technology (Mokuai/Wenheng)

8.834 JIT (JI Technology)

8.835 JMA Wireless

8.836 Johnson Controls

8.837 JOUAV

8.838 JPC Connectivity

8.839 JPS Interoperability Solutions

8.840 JQL Technologies

8.841 JRC (Japan Radio Company)

8.842 JSC Ingenium

8.843 JT IoT

8.844 Juniper Networks (HPE – Hewlett Packard Enterprise)

8.845 Junkosha

8.846 Juvare

8.847 JVCKENWOOD Corporation

8.848 Kacific Broadband Satellites

8.849 Kaelus

8.850 Kaifa (Shenzen Kaifa Technology)

8.851 Kajeet

8.852 Kalmar (Cargotec)

8.853 Kaloom

8.854 Kalray

8.855 Katela Networks

8.856 KATIM

8.857 KBR

8.858 KBT (Kenbotong Technology)

8.859 KDDI Corporation

8.860 Key Bridge Wireless

8.861 Keysight Technologies

8.862 Khomp

8.863 Kiana Analytics

8.864 Kigen

8.865 Kindroid – Shanghai Jinzhuo Technology (Kyland Technology)

8.866 Kirisun Communications

8.867 Kisan Telecom

8.868 KLA Laboratories

8.869 Klas Telecom

8.870 Klein Electronics

8.871 Kleos

8.872 KMW

8.873 Knightscope

8.874 Kolibri Systems

8.875 Komatsu

8.876 Konecranes

8.877 Kontron

8.878 KORE Wireless

8.879 KPN

8.880 KT Corporation

8.881 Kudelski Group

8.882 KUKA

8.883 Kumu Networks

8.884 K-Won/Hunter Technology

8.885 Kyland Technology

8.886 Kymeta Corporation

8.887 Kyndryl

8.888 Kyocera Corporation

8.889 Kyrio (CableLabs)

8.890 KZ TECH (KZ Broadband Technologies)

8.891 L3Harris Technologies

8.892 Laird Connectivity

8.893 Landis+Gyr

8.894 Landmark Dividend (DigitalBridge Group)

8.895 Lanner Electronics

8.896 Lantronix

8.897 Lattice Semiconductor

8.898 LCR Embedded Systems

8.899 Leenos Corporation

8.900 Leidos

8.901 Lekha Wireless Solutions

8.902 Lemko Corporation

8.903 Lenovo

8.904 Leonardo

8.905 Lextrum (COMSovereign)

8.906 LG Corporation

8.907 LG Uplus

8.908 Liberty Global

8.909 Lierda Science & Technology Group

8.910 Lifecycle Software

8.911 Ligado Networks

8.912 Lightron

8.913 Lime Microsystems

8.914 Lindsay Broadband

8.915 Linkem

8.916 Linksys

8.917 Linx Technologies

8.918 LIONS Technology

8.919 LIS (Laboratory of Infocommunication Networks)

8.920 Lisheng Fujian Communications

8.921 LITE-ON Technology Corporation

8.922 LitePoint (Teradyne)

8.923 LiveU

8.924 Lociva

8.925 Lockheed Martin Corporation

8.926 Logicalis (Datatec)

8.927 LogicTree IT Solutions

8.928 Longsung Technology (Sunsea AIoT Technology)

8.929 Lookout

8.930 LS Mtron

8.931 LS telcom

8.932 LTTS (L&T Technology Services)

8.933 Luceor

8.934 Lumen Technologies

8.935 Lumentum

8.936 Lumineye

8.937 LuxCarta

8.938 Luxoft (DXC Technology)

8.939 Lyfo

8.940 Lynk Global

8.941 M1

8.942 m3connect

8.943 M4PS (Mobility 4 Public Safety)

8.944 MACOM

8.945 Magnaquest Technologies

8.946 Maipu Communication Technology

8.947 Maja Systems

8.948 MantisNet

8.949 MarchNet

8.950 Marlink

8.951 Marquistech

8.952 Martin UAV

8.953 Marubeni Corporation

8.954 Marubun Corporation

8.955 Marvell Technology

8.956 MÁSMÓVIL

8.957 Mathworks

8.958 Matrix Electrónica/Webdyn (Flexitron Group)

8.959 MATRIXX Software

8.960 MatSing

8.961 Maven Wireless

8.962 Mavenir

8.963 Maxar Technologies

8.964 MaxComm

8.965 Maxis

8.966 MaxLinear

8.967 MC Technologies

8.968 MCLabs

8.969 MCP (Mission Critical Partners)

8.970 MCS Benelux

8.971 MD (MICRODRIVE)

8.972 Mdex (Wireless Logic Group)

8.973 MEASAT Satellite Systems

8.974 MECSware

8.975 Media Broadcast (freenet Group)

8.976 MediaTek

8.977 Meeami Technologies

8.978 MegaChips Corporation

8.979 MegaFon

8.980 Meglab (Epiroc)

8.981 MeiG Smart Technology

8.982 Meizu

8.983 Mentura Group

8.984 MER Group

8.985 Meta

8.986 Metanoia Communications

8.987 Metaswitch Networks (Microsoft Corporation)

8.988 Metawave Corporation

8.989 Metismake

8.990 MetTel

8.991 MHD (Muhan Digital)

8.992 MIC Nordic

8.993 MICAS-RF (MICAS Shenzhen Telecommunication)

8.994 MiCOM Labs

8.995 Micran

8.996 Microamp Solutions

8.997 Microchip Technology

8.998 Microlab (RF Industries)

8.999 MicroNova

8.1000 Microsoft Corporation

8.1001 Microwave Networks

8.1002 MikroTik

8.1003 Mikwave (Guangdong Mikwave Communication Tech)

8.1004 Milesight

8.1005 Milestone Systems

8.1006 Miliwave

8.1007 MiMOMax (Ubiik)

8.1008 MIPS

8.1009 MiTAC Computing Technology Corporation

8.1010 MitraStar Technology (Unizyx Holding Corporation)

8.1011 MITRE Corporation

8.1012 Mitsubishi Electric Corporation

8.1013 MKI (Mitsui Knowledge Industry)

8.1014 MOBI (Mobi Antenna Technologies)

8.1015 Mobil Group (Russia)

8.1016 Mobile Inform Group

8.1017 Mobile Mark

8.1018 Mobile Tornado

8.1019 Mobile Viewpoint

8.1020 MobileComm Professionals (UST)

8.1021 MobileDemand

8.1022 MobileIron

8.1023 MobileTek (Shanghai Mobiletek Communication)

8.1024 Mobileum

8.1025 Mobilicom

8.1026 Mobiveil

8.1027 Modular Mining Systems (Komatsu)

8.1028 Molex

8.1029 Monogoto

8.1030 Morningcore Technology (CICT – China Information and Communication Technology Group)

8.1031 Morningstar Corporation

8.1032 Moseley Associates (Axxcss Wireless Solutions)

8.1033 MosoLabs (Sercomm Corporation)

8.1034 Motive Infrastructure Solutions

8.1035 Motorola Mobility (Lenovo)

8.1036 Motorola Solutions

8.1037 Mott MacDonald

8.1038 Movandi

8.1039 Moxa

8.1040 MP Antenna

8.1041 MRK Media

8.1042 MRT Technology (Suzhou)

8.1043 MSB (M S Benbow & Associates)

8.1044 MST Global – Mine Site Technologies (Komatsu)

8.1045 MTI (Microelectronics Technology Inc.)

8.1046 MTI Wireless Edge

8.1047 MTN Group

8.1048 MTS (Mobile TeleSystems)

8.1049 MUGLER

8.1050 MultiTech (Multi-Tech Systems)

8.1051 Murata Manufacturing

8.1052 Mushroom Networks

8.1053 Mutualink

8.1054 MVI Group

8.1055 MW (Matrix Wave)

8.1056 MYCOM OSI

8.1057 Mynaric

8.1058 MYT Electronics

8.1059 N.A.T.

8.1060 Nable Communications

8.1061 NanoSemi (MaxLinear)

8.1062 Napatech

8.1063 Nash Technologies

8.1064 Nearby Computing

8.1065 NEC Corporation

8.1066 Nemergent Solutions

8.1067 Nemko

8.1068 Neolink Communications Technology

8.1069 NeoPlane

8.1070 Neoway Technology

8.1071 Neptune Communications

8.1072 Neragon Networks

8.1073 Net AI

8.1074 Netaş

8.1075 NETBEE (NET-Automation)

8.1076 NetCity (GEOS Telecom/GEOS Holding)

8.1077 Netcracker Technology (NEC Corporation)

8.1078 NetFoundry

8.1079 Netgear

8.1080 NetModule (Belden)

8.1081 Netmore Group

8.1082 NETSCOUT Systems

8.1083 Netsia (Argela)

8.1084 Netvision Telecom

8.1085 Neutral Wireless

8.1086 Neutroon Technologies

8.1087 New H3C Technologies (Tsinghua Unigroup)

8.1088 New Postcom Equipment

8.1089 NewEdge Signal Solutions

8.1090 NEXCOM International

8.1091 Nexign

8.1092 Nexpring

8.1093 NextEPC Korea (COONTEC)

8.1094 Nextivity

8.1095 NextNav

8.1096 NextWave

8.1097 Nextworks

8.1098 ng4T

8.1099 NGK Group (NGK Insulators)

8.1100 ng-voice

8.1101 NI (National Instruments)

8.1102 NICE

8.1103 NimbeLink

8.1104 Niral Networks

8.1105 Nitto Denko Corporation

8.1106 NKG (New Kinpo Group)

8.1107 Node-H

8.1108 Nokia

8.1109 Nomad Digital (Alstom)

8.1110 Nordic Semiconductor

8.1111 Northrop Grumman Corporation

8.1112 NOTION Information Technology

8.1113 Nova Labs (Helium)

8.1114 NOVEC

8.1115 NOVELSAT

8.1116 NRB (Network Research Belgium)

8.1117 NS Solutions Corporation

8.1118 Nsight

8.1119 NT (National Telecom)

8.1120 NTC Corporation (Japan)

8.1121 NTMore (Network Technology More)

8.1122 NTT DoCoMo

8.1123 NTT Group

8.1124 Nubia Technology (ZTE)

8.1125 NuRAN Wireless

8.1126 Nurlink Technology

8.1127 NVIDIA Corporation

8.1128 NXP Semiconductors

8.1129 Oasis Smart SIM

8.1130 Obvios

8.1131 Ocado Technology

8.1132 Oceus Networks

8.1133 Octasic

8.1134 O-Cubes

8.1135 ODN (Orbital Data Network)

8.1136 OE Solutions

8.1137 OFS Fitel (Furukawa Electric)

8.1138 OKI Electric Industry

8.1139 Omnispace

8.1140 Omnitele

8.1141 Omnitron Systems

8.1142 Omnitronics

8.1143 One2many (Everbridge)

8.1144 OneLayer

8.1145 OnePlus (BBK Electronics)

8.1146 OneSimCard

8.1147 OneWeb (Eutelsat Group)

8.1148 Onomondo

8.1149 Ontix

8.1150 Onwave

8.1151 Ooredoo

8.1152 Opanga Networks

8.1153 Open Valley

8.1154 Opencode Systems

8.1155 Openet (Amdocs)

8.1156 OPPO (BBK Electronics)

8.1157 O'Prueba Technology

8.1158 OPTAGE

8.1159 OptConnect

8.1160 Optical Zonu Corporation

8.1161 Opticoms

8.1162 Option

8.1163 Optiva

8.1164 OQ Technology

8.1165 Oracle Communications

8.1166 Orange

8.1167 ORBCOMM

8.1168 Ori Industries

8.1169 Orion Labs

8.1170 Oscilloquartz (Adtran)

8.1171 OV (Manx Telecom)

8.1172 OVHcloud

8.1173 P.I. Works

8.1174 PacStar (Pacific Star Communications)

8.1175 Padtec

8.1176 Palo Alto Networks

8.1177 Panasonic Connect

8.1178 Panda Electronics

8.1179 PanOptis

8.1180 Panorama Antennas

8.1181 Parallel Wireless

8.1182 Parsec Technologies

8.1183 Particle

8.1184 PAStech

8.1185 Patrocinium Systems

8.1186 Patton

8.1187 Pavlov Media

8.1188 PBE Axell (Formerly Axell Wireless)

8.1189 PCS Technologies

8.1190 PCTEL (Amphenol Corporation)

8.1191 PCTEST Lab (PCTEST Engineering Laboratory)

8.1192 Peatalk Corporation

8.1193 Pegatron Corporation

8.1194 Pei Tel Communications

8.1195 Pelion

8.1196 Penguin Solutions (SGH – SMART Global Holdings)

8.1197 Pente Networks

8.1198 Pentonet

8.1199 Peplink (Plover Bay Technologies)

8.1200 Pepperl+Fuchs

8.1201 Pepro

8.1202 Peraso

8.1203 Peraton Labs

8.1204 Percepto

8.1205 Perle Systems

8.1206 PGE Systemy (PGE – Polish Energy Group)

8.1207 Pharrowtech

8.1208 Phirst Technologies/xCraft Enterprises

8.1209 Phluido

8.1210 Phoenix Contact

8.1211 Phytium Technology (Tianjin Phytium Information Technology)

8.1212 PHYTunes

8.1213 Picocom

8.1214 Pierson Wireless

8.1215 Pivot Technology Services

8.1216 Pivotal Commware

8.1217 Pivotel Group

8.1218 Pivotone

8.1219 Pixavi (BARTEC)

8.1220 Platform9

8.1221 Pletronics

8.1222 Plextek

8.1223 Plintron

8.1224 Plus (Polkomtel)

8.1225 POCSTARS

8.1226 Pod Group (G+D – Giesecke+Devrient)

8.1227 Polaris Networks (Motorola Solutions)

8.1228 Polaris Wireless

8.1229 Pollen Mobile

8.1230 Positron Access Solutions

8.1231 Potevio (CETC – China Electronics Technology Group Corporation)

8.1232 PPC (Power Plus Communications)

8.1233 PPC Broadband (Belden)

8.1234 Precision OT (Optical Transceivers)

8.1235 PRESCOM

8.1236 PrioCom

8.1237 Proef

8.1238 Proptivity

8.1239 Proscend Communications

8.1240 PROSE Technologies

8.1241 PROTEI

8.1242 Proxim Wireless Corporation (SRA Holdings)

8.1243 Proximus

8.1244 Pryme Radio Products

8.1245 pSemi Corporation (Murata Manufacturing)

8.1246 PT INTI (PT Industri Telekomunikasi Indonesia)

8.1247 PT LEN Industri

8.1248 PTC

8.1249 Publicis Sapient

8.1250 Puloli

8.1251 Pulsara

8.1252 Pulse Electronics (YAGEO Corporation)

8.1253 PureSoftware

8.1254 Pycom

8.1255 PySENSE

8.1256 QCT (Quanta Cloud Technology)

8.1257 QinetiQ

8.1258 Qorvo

8.1259 QuadGen Wireless Solutions

8.1260 Qualcomm

8.1261 Quanta Computer

8.1262 Quantum Wireless

8.1263 Qucell Networks (InnoWireless)

8.1264 Quectel Wireless Solutions

8.1265 Quintel (Cirtek Holdings Philippines Corporation)

8.1266 Qulsar (VIAVI Solutions)

8.1267 Qwake Technologies

8.1268 Qwilt

8.1269 R Systems (Computaris International)

8.1270 R3 Solutions

8.1271 RACOM (Czech Republic)

8.1272 RACOM Corporation

8.1273 RAD

8.1274 RADCOM

8.1275 Radiall

8.1276 Radio Gigabit

8.1277 Radio IP Software

8.1278 RadioMobile

8.1279 Radisys (Reliance Industries)

8.1280 RADTONICS

8.1281 Radware

8.1282 RADWIN

8.1283 Rafael Advanced Defense Systems

8.1284 Raisecom

8.1285 Rajant Corporation

8.1286 Rakon

8.1287 Rakuten Symphony

8.1288 RAKwireless

8.1289 Range Networks (AMN – Africa Mobile Networks)

8.1290 Ranger Systems

8.1291 Ranplan Wireless

8.1292 Rapid.Space (Nexedi)

8.1293 RapidDeploy

8.1294 RapidSOS

8.1295 Rapidtek Technologies

8.1296 Rave Mobile Safety

8.1297 Raycap

8.1298 RCS Telecommunications

8.1299 RCT (Remote Control Technologies)

8.1300 Ready Wireless

8.1301 Realme (BBK Electronics)

8.1302 Red Hat (IBM)

8.1303 Red Lion Controls (Spectris)

8.1304 RED Technologies

8.1305 RedZinc

8.1306 Reliance Jio Infocomm (Jio Platforms)

8.1307 REMEC Broadband Wireless Networks (Bridgewave Communications/SAGE SatCom)

8.1308 Renesas Electronics Corporation

8.1309 REPLY

8.1310 Rescue 42

8.1311 Responder Corp

8.1312 RF Connect

8.1313 RF DSP

8.1314 RF Industries

8.1315 RF MORECOM

8.1316 RF Window

8.1317 RF-Comm

8.1318 RFHIC Corporation

8.1319 RFI Technology Solutions (Tait Communications)

8.1320 RFS (Radio Frequency Systems)

8.1321 RFTech

8.1322 Ribbon Communications

8.1323 Ricon Mobile

8.1324 RigNet (Viasat Energy Services)

8.1325 RIMEDO Labs

8.1326 Rivada Networks

8.1327 Rivada Space Networks

8.1328 RKTPL (RK Telesystem Private Limited)

8.1329 Robert Bosch

8.1330 Robin.io (Rakuten Symphony)

8.1331 Robustel

8.1332 Rogers Communications

8.1333 Rogers Corporation

8.1334 Rohde & Schwarz

8.1335 Rohill

8.1336 Rolling Wireless (Fibocom)

8.1337 Rolloos (FMJ Group)

8.1338 Rosenberger

8.1339 Royole Corporation

8.1340 RSCC (Russian Satellite Communications Company)

8.1341 RSConnect

8.1342 RTX A/S

8.1343 RTX Corporation (Formerly Raytheon Technologies)

8.1344 RTx Technology

8.1345 RugGear

8.1346 RuggON Corporation

8.1347 Ruijie Networks

8.1348 RunEL

8.1349 Rushmere Technology

8.1350 S&T Iskratel (Kontron)

8.1351 Saab

8.1352 Saankhya Labs (Tejas Networks)

8.1353 SABIC

8.1354 SAC Wireless (Nokia)

8.1355 SAE IT-Systems (LACROIX Group)

8.1356 SAF Tehnika

8.1357 Safe-Com Wireless

8.1358 SafeMobile

8.1359 Safran

8.1360 Sagemcom

8.1361 SageRAN (Guangzhou SageRAN Technology)

8.1362 Saguna Networks (COMSovereign)

8.1363 SAI Technology

8.1364 SAIC (Science Applications International Corporation)

8.1365 Samji Electronics

8.1366 Samsung

8.1367 SAMWON FA

8.1368 Samyoung Celetra

8.1369 Sandvik

8.1370 Sandvine

8.1371 Sanechips Technology (ZTE)

8.1372 Sanjole

8.1373 San-tron

8.1374 Sanxing (Ningbo Sanxing Smart Electric)

8.1375 Sasken Technologies

8.1376 SaskTel

8.1377 Sateliot

8.1378 SatixFy

8.1379 Saviah Technologies

8.1380 Savox Communications

8.1381 SBA Communications

8.1382 Sceye

8.1383 Schneider Electric

8.1384 SEA – Systems Engineering & Assessment (Cohort)

8.1385 Seamless Waves

8.1386 Sectra Communications

8.1387 Secured Communications

8.1388 SecureG

8.1389 Select Spectrum

8.1390 SEMPRE (Secure EMP-Resilient Edge)

8.1391 Semtech Corporation

8.1392 Senko Advanced Components

8.1393 Sensorview

8.1394 Senstar Corporation

8.1395 Sensus (Xylem)

8.1396 Sentient Energy (Koch Engineered Solutions)

8.1397 Sentinel Camera Systems

8.1398 Seong Ji Industrial

8.1399 SEONTECH

8.1400 Seowon Intech

8.1401 Sepura

8.1402 Sequans Communications

8.1403 Sercomm Corporation

8.1404 SES

8.1405 SETUP Protokolltester

8.1406 SGS

8.1407 Shannon Wireless (Zhejiang Shannon Communication Technology)

8.1408 Shared Access

8.1409 Sharp Corporation (Foxconn – Hon Hai Technology Group)

8.1410 Shenglu (Guangdong Shenglu Telecommunication)

8.1411 Shenzhen CXD Science & Technology

8.1412 Shenzhen Recoda Technologies

8.1413 SIAE Microelettronica

8.1414 SICK

8.1415 Siemens

8.1416 Sierra Wireless (Semtech Corporation)

8.1417 Sigma Wireless

8.1418 Signal Information & Communication Corporation

8.1419 Signalchip

8.1420 Signalwing

8.1421 Silicom Connectivity Solutions

8.1422 Silicom SAS (France)

8.1423 SIMCom Wireless Solutions (Sunsea AIoT Technology)

8.1424 Simnovus

8.1425 Simoco Wireless Solutions

8.1426 Sinclair Technologies (Norsat International/Hytera Communications)

8.1427 Singtel

8.1428 Sinnwell (audius)

8.1429 SIRADEL

8.1430 SITA

8.1431 siticom (Logicalis)

8.1432 SiTime Corporation

8.1433 SITRONICS (Sistema)

8.1434 Sivers Semiconductors

8.1435 Siyata Mobile

8.1436 SK Telecom

8.1437 SK Telesys

8.1438 Skoltech (Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology)

8.1439 SKY Perfect JSAT

8.1440 SkyFive

8.1441 Skylark Wireless

8.1442 Skylo Technologies

8.1443 Skytic Telecom

8.1444 Skyvera (TelcoDR)

8.1445 Skyworks Solutions

8.1446 SLA Corporation

8.1447 SM Optics (SIAE Microelettronica)

8.1448 Smart Communications (PLDT)

8.1449 Smart Mobile Labs

8.1450 Smartfren

8.1451 SmarTone

8.1452 SmartSky Networks

8.1453 SMAWave (Shanghai SMAWave Technology)

8.1454 Socionext

8.1455 SoftBank Group

8.1456 Softil

8.1457 Soitec

8.1458 Solectek Corporation/Cielo Networks

8.1459 SOLiD

8.1460 Solidtronic

8.1461 Soliton Systems

8.1462 Sonim Technologies

8.1463 Sony Group Corporation

8.1464 Sooktha

8.1465 Soracom

8.1466 Source Photonics

8.1467 Southern Linc

8.1468 Space Data Corporation

8.1469 SpaceBridge

8.1470 Spacecom

8.1471 SpaceX

8.1472 Spark New Zealand

8.1473 Spectra Group

8.1474 SpectraRep

8.1475 Spectre (Rostec)

8.1476 Spectronite

8.1477 Spectronn

8.1478 Spectrum Effect

8.1479 Speedcast

8.1480 Spideradio (Suzhou Spideradio Telecommunication Technology)

8.1481 SPIE Group

8.1482 Spirent Communications

8.1483 SPIRIT DSP

8.1484 SPL (Stratospheric Platforms Limited)

8.1485 Sporton International

8.1486 SQUAN

8.1487 Squire Technologies

8.1488 SRS (Software Radio Systems)

8.1489 SRTechnology

8.1490 SSC (Shared Spectrum Company)

8.1491 SSS Public Safety

8.1492 ST (STMicroelectronics)

8.1493 ST Engineering iDirect

8.1494 Star Microwave

8.1495 Star Solutions

8.1496 StarHub

8.1497 StarPoint (Beijing StarPoint Technology)

8.1498 STC (Saudi Telecom Company)

8.1499 Steep

8.1500 STEP CG

8.1501 STL (Sterlite Technologies Ltd.)

8.1502 Stop Noise

8.1503 sTraffic

8.1504 Strata Worldwide

8.1505 Streambox

8.1506 Streamwide

8.1507 Subex

8.1508 Sumitomo Electric Industries

8.1509 Summa Networks

8.1510 Summit Tech

8.1511 Sunsea AIoT Technology

8.1512 Sunwave Communications

8.1513 Supermicro (Super Micro Computer)

8.1514 SureSite Consulting Group

8.1515 SUSE

8.1516 Swisscom

8.1517 Swissphone

8.1518 Sylincom (Beijing Sylincom Technology)

8.1519 Synctechno

8.1520 Syniverse

8.1521 SYRTEM

8.1522 Systech Corporation

8.1523 System Innovation Group

8.1524 Systemics-PAB

8.1525 T&W (Shenzhen Gongjin Electronics)

8.1526 T2M

8.1527 TacSat Networks

8.1528 Tait Communications

8.1529 Taiwan Mobile

8.1530 TAIYO YUDEN

8.1531 Talia Communications (Commercis)

8.1532 Talk-IP International

8.1533 Talkpod Technology

8.1534 Tambora Systems

8.1535 Tampa Microwave (Thales)

8.1536 Tampnet

8.1537 Tango Networks

8.1538 Tango Tango

8.1539 Taoglas

8.1540 Tarana Wireless

8.1541 TASSTA

8.1542 Tata Elxsi

8.1543 Tatfook (Shenzhen Tatfook Technology)

8.1544 TCL Communication

8.1545 TCOM

8.1546 TCS (Tata Consultancy Services)

8.1547 TD Tech

8.1548 TDC NET

8.1549 TDCOMM

8.1550 TE Connectivity

8.1551 Teal Communications

8.1552 Tech Mahindra

8.1553 Techbros

8.1554 Tecom

8.1555 Tecore Networks

8.1556 Tejas Networks

8.1557 TEKTELIC Communications

8.1558 Telco Systems (BATM Advanced Communications)

8.1559 Telcoware

8.1560 Teldat

8.1561 Tele2

8.1562 Tele2 Russia (Rostelecom)

8.1563 Telecom26

8.1564 Teleena (Tata Communications MOVE)

8.1565 Telefield

8.1566 Telefónica Group

8.1567 Telekom Slovenije

8.1568 Telenor Group

8.1569 Telent

8.1570 Telesat

8.1571 Telespazio (Leonardo/Thales)

8.1572 Teleste

8.1573 teleSys Software

8.1574 Telet Research

8.1575 Televate

8.1576 Telewave

8.1577 TeleWorld Solutions (Samsung)

8.1578 Telia Company

8.1579 Telit Cinterion

8.1580 Telkomsel

8.1581 Tellabs

8.1582 Tellion

8.1583 Telna

8.1584 TELNET Redes Inteligentes

8.1585 TELOX (Telo Systems)

8.1586 Telrad Networks

8.1587 Telsasoft

8.1588 Telstra

8.1589 Teltonika

8.1590 Teltronic (Hytera Communications)

8.1591 Telus

8.1592 TEOCO

8.1593 Teracom

8.1594 Teradek

8.1595 TeraGo

8.1596 Tera-Pass

8.1597 Tessares

8.1598 TESSCO Technologies/Ventev

8.1599 Thaicom

8.1600 Thales

8.1601 ThinkRF

8.1602 Three Group Solutions (CK Hutchison)

8.1603 Thundercomm

8.1604 TI (Texas Instruments)

8.1605 Tianyi (Sichuan Tianyi Comheart Telecom)

8.1606 Tibco Telecoms

8.1607 TietoEVRY

8.1608 Tillman Global Holdings

8.1609 Tilson

8.1610 TIL-TEK Antennae

8.1611 TIM (Telecom Italia Mobile)

8.1612 Titan ICT

8.1613 Titan.ium Platform

8.1614 TJ Innovation

8.1615 TLC Solutions

8.1616 TM (Telekom Malaysia)

8.1617 T-Mobile US

8.1618 TMYTEK (TMY Technology)

8.1619 TNS (Transaction Network Services)

8.1620 TO21COMMS

8.1621 Tofane Global

8.1622 TOKIE (Irvees Technology)

8.1623 TOMIA

8.1624 Tongyu Communication

8.1625 Toshiba Corporation

8.1626 Totogi

8.1627 TowerJazz

8.1628 TPG Telecom

8.1629 TPL Systèmes

8.1630 TP-Link Technologies

8.1631 Transatel (NTT Group)

8.1632 TransPacket

8.1633 Trialink (Russia)

8.1634 TriaSys Technologies Corporation

8.1635 TRIOPT

8.1636 Triorail

8.1637 Trópico (CPQD – Center for Research and Development in Telecommunications, Brazil)

8.1638 TrueMove H (True Corporation)

8.1639 TRUMPF

8.1640 Truphone

8.1641 TRX Systems

8.1642 TSMC (Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company)

8.1643 Tsofun

8.1644 TST Systems (Thorcom Systems/Sonic Communications/Tioga Electronic Assembly)

8.1645 T-Systems International

8.1646 TTG International

8.1647 TTM Technologies

8.1648 Tupl

8.1649 Türk Telekom

8.1650 Turkcell

8.1651 TUSUR (Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics)

8.1652 TÜV SÜD

8.1653 Two Six Labs

8.1654 Tyler Technologies

8.1655 U.S. Cellular

8.1656 UANGEL

8.1657 UBCS

8.1658 Ubicquia

8.1659 Ubiik

8.1660 UBiqube

8.1661 Ubiquoss

8.1662 Ubiwhere

8.1663 U-Blox

8.1664 Ucloudy (Shanghai Ucloudy Information Technology)

8.1665 UCtel

8.1666 UfiSpace

8.1667 UL

8.1668 ULAK Communication

8.1669 Ultraband Technologies

8.1670 UMC (United Microelectronics Corporation)

8.1671 UMS (United Monolithic Semiconductors)

8.1672 UNIMO Technology

8.1673 UNISOC (Tsinghua Unigroup)

8.1674 UniStrong

8.1675 UNITAC Technology

8.1676 UniTTEC

8.1677 UROS

8.1678 URSYS

8.1679 US Digital Designs

8.1680 USI (Universal Scientific Industrial)

8.1681 Utility (Utility Associates)

8.1682 Utility Connect (Alliander/Stedin)

8.1683 UTStarcom

8.1684 V&M (Venus & Mercury) Telecom

8.1685 V5 Systems

8.1686 Valid (Brazil)

8.1687 Valid8

8.1688 Vantage Towers

8.1689 Vantiva (Formerly Technicolor)

8.1690 Vanu

8.1691 Vapor IO

8.1692 Vavitel (Shenzhen Vavitel Technology)

8.1693 VDI (Virginia Diodes, Inc.)

8.1694 Vector Data

8.1695 Veea

8.1696 VEON

8.1697 Verana Networks

8.1698 Verizon Communications

8.1699 Verkotan

8.1700 Versa Networks

8.1701 Vertel

8.1702 Vertical Bridge (DigitalBridge Group)

8.1703 Vertiv

8.1704 Verveba Telecom

8.1705 VHT (Viettel High Tech)

8.1706 Viasat

8.1707 VIAVI Solutions

8.1708 VIDA Technologies

8.1709 Vigilate

8.1710 VinSmart (Vingroup)

8.1711 Viper RF

8.1712 Viprinet

8.1713 ViPRO Corporation

8.1714 Virtual Access (Westermo Network Technologies)

8.1715 Virtusa Corporation

8.1716 Vislink Technologies

8.1717 Visual Labs

8.1718 Vital (New Zealand)

8.1719 VITES

8.1720 Vivo (BBK Electronics)

8.1721 VMware (Broadcom)

8.1722 VNL – Vihaan Networks Limited (Shyam Group)

8.1723 Vodacom Group

8.1724 Vodafone Group

8.1725 VoerEir

8.1726 VoiceAge Corporation

8.1727 Voipfuture

8.1728 Volvo CE (Construction Equipment)

8.1729 Voxer

8.1730 VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

8.1731 Vubiq Networks

8.1732 VVDN Technologies

8.1733 WAGO

8.1734 WAV4M

8.1735 WAVE (AGC)

8.1736 Wave1

8.1737 Wave-In Communication

8.1738 Wavelabs

8.1739 Wavesight

8.1740 Wavetel Technology

8.1741 Waycare

8.1742 WCCTV (Wireless CCTV)

8.1743 WDNA (Wireless DNA)

8.1744 Weaccess Group

8.1745 WebRadar

8.1746 Weidmüller

8.1747 Welotec

8.1748 Westell Technologies

8.1749 Wevercomm

8.1750 Wewins (Shenzhen Wewins Wireless)

8.1751 wgtwo – Working Group Two (Cisco Systems)

8.1752 WH Bence Group

8.1753 Whale Cloud Technology (Alibaba Group)

8.1754 Whizz Systems

8.1755 Widelity

8.1756 WiFrost

8.1757 WIG (Wireless Infrastructure Group)

8.1758 Wildox (Shenzhen Happy Technology)

8.1759 Wilson Electronics

8.1760 Wilus

8.1761 WIN Connectivity (Wireless Information Networks)

8.1762 Wind River Systems

8.1763 Wind Tre

8.1764 Wingtech Technology

8.1765 WINITECH

8.1766 Winmate Communications

8.1767 Winncom Technologies

8.1768 Wipro

8.1769 Wireless Logic Group

8.1770 Wireless Technologies Finland

8.1771 Wireless Telecom Group

8.1772 WiSig Networks

8.1773 Wistron Corporation

8.1774 Wiwynn (Wistron Corporation)

8.1775 WM Systems

8.1776 WMS (Wireless Maritime Services)

8.1777 WNC (Wistron NeWeb Corporation)

8.1778 Wolfspeed

8.1779 WooriNet

8.1780 Workz

8.1781 World View

8.1782 WorldCell Solutions

8.1783 Wouxun (Quanzhou Wouxun Electronics)

8.1784 WTL (World Telecom Labs)

8.1785 WTW Electronic

8.1786 WWT (World Wide Technology)

8.1787 Wytec International

8.1788 Xantaro

8.1789 XAVi Technologies Corporation (Chicony Electronics)

8.1790 Xelera Technologies

8.1791 Xemex

8.1792 Xena Networks

8.1793 Xiamen Puxing Electronics Science & Technology

8.1794 Xiamen Sanan Integrated Circuit

8.1795 Xiaomi

8.1796 Xilinx (AMD – Advanced Micro Devices)

8.1797 Xingtera

8.1798 Xinwei Group

8.1799 XINYI Information Technology

8.1800 XipLink

8.1801 XIUS

8.1802 YADRO (ICS Holding)

8.1803 YAGEO Corporation

8.1804 Yahsat (Al Yah Satellite Communications)/Thuraya

8.1805 YaleBTS

8.1806 Yanton (Quanzhou Yanton Electronics)

8.1807 YOFC (Yangtze Optical Fibre and Cable)

8.1808 Yokogawa Electric Corporation

8.1809 Yuge Technology (Shanghai Yuge Information Technology)

8.1810 Yunzhi Ruantong (Beijing Yunzhi Ruantong Information Technology)

8.1811 Zain Group

8.1812 ZaiNar

8.1813 Zaram Technology

8.1814 Z-Com

8.1815 Zealync

8.1816 Zebra Technologies

8.1817 Zeetta Networks

8.1818 Zello

8.1819 Zengyi Technology

8.1820 Zepcam

8.1821 ZeroEyes

8.1822 Zetron (Codan)

8.1823 Zhengkai Electronics (Jiangsu Zhengkai Electronics Technology)

8.1824 ZILLNK

8.1825 Zinwave (Wilson Electronics)

8.1826 Zioncom

8.1827 Zmtel (Shanghai Zhongmi Communication Technology)

8.1828 ZT Systems

8.1829 ZTE

8.1830 Zyxel (Unizyx Holding Corporation)

9 Chapter 9: Market Sizing & Forecasts

9.1 Global Outlook for Private 5G Networks

9.2 Infrastructure Submarkets

9.2.1 5G NR RAN

9.2.1.1 Base Station RUs

9.2.1.2 DUs/CUs

9.2.2 5GC

9.2.2.1 UPF

9.2.2.2 Control Plane

9.2.3 5G Transport

9.2.3.1 Fiber & Wireline

9.2.3.2 Microwave

9.2.3.3 Satellite Communications

9.3 Cell Sizes

9.3.1 Indoor Small Cells

9.3.2 Outdoor Small Cells

9.3.3 Macrocells

9.4 Frequency Ranges

9.4.1 Sub-6 GHz

9.4.2 mmWave

9.5 End User Markets & Verticals

9.5.1 Vertical Industries

9.5.1.1 Agriculture

9.5.1.2 Aviation

9.5.1.3 Broadcasting

9.5.1.4 Construction

9.5.1.5 Education

9.5.1.6 Forestry

9.5.1.7 Healthcare

9.5.1.8 Manufacturing

9.5.1.9 Military

9.5.1.10 Mining

9.5.1.11 Oil & Gas

9.5.1.12 Ports & Maritime Transport

9.5.1.13